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The importance of tobacco taxes
NCBI Bookshelf. Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking. The common tobacco plants of commerce had apparently been used for millenia by the peoples of the Western hemisphere before contact with Europeans began in The plants were cultivated by native Americans in Central and South America.
Tobacco often had religious uses as depicted in Mayan temple carvings Slade, The start of the spread of tobacco from the Americas to the rest of the world invariably seems to date back to 11 October , when Columbus was offered dried tobacco leaves at the House of the Arawaks, and took the plant back with him to Europe IARC, a.
Presumably, the technique of smoking was picked up at the same time. The tobacco grown in France and Spain was Nicotiana tabacum , which came from seed that originated in Brazil and Mexico. Although claims were made that tobacco had been used earlier in China, no convincing documentation for this exists, but it is clear from Table 1. Tobacco was grown, smoked and chewed by numerous peoples and eventually became ubiquitous; it certainly featured as an important tradeable source of income from the time of its discovery by Columbus until the present day.
The modern history of tobacco really starts with the design of the cigarette machine in the middle of the nineteenth century; a machine was patented in by James Bonsack Bonsack, Since the s, most tobacco has been smoked in cigarettes, with cigars, pipes and chewing tobacco declining to relatively small proportions of the global consumption.
World tobacco production is currently declining. It is a little early to interpret the significance of these figures, and certainly too early to conclude that they reflect the beginning of a long-term downward trend. The pattern of production has shifted significantly in recent decades. Whereas exports from the USA have fallen slightly, those from Brazil, China and Zimbabwe have increased substantially.
Table 1. Complex reasons lie behind the change in pattern. Economic pressures, often following political decisions, dictate who grows what and where. In developed areas, e. In developing countries, the cigarette manufacturers may provide seed and expertise as well as an assured market for the tobacco type they need Time Asia, In other countries, cigarette manufacturers are compelled to purchase a proportion of their tobacco locally.
Furthermore, consolidation of cigarette manufacturing followed the opening up of central and eastern Europe with the purchase by transnational corporations of antiquated tobacco monopolies Griffin-Pustay, , This affected the pattern of leaf production, import and export.
The downward trend in tar and nicotine yields of cigarettes sold in developing countries during the s meant that manufacturers' requirements were changed. The move towards tobacco with a low nitrosamine yield in the USA led to the export of substantial amounts of existing leaf. Tobacco leaf imports and exports in selected countries between and tonnes. The trend towards a smaller number of global brands was accompanied by the trend to global advertising.
Many smuggled cigarettes may be exported and imported several times. There is a wide variety of smoking tobacco products on the world market to chose from, including cigarettes, cigars, cigarillos, bidis, chuttas and kreteks Table 1. Cigarettes and cigars use blended tobaccos and the type of tobacco used in these products has a decisive influence on the physicochemical nature of the smoke they produce. The chemical composition of the tobacco leaf is determined by plant genetics, cultivation practices, weather conditions and curing methods Tso, The classification of the leaf tobacco commonly used in cigarettes is primarily based on curing methods and tobacco types.
For example, a standard system of classification by the US Department of Agriculture designates six major classes of US tobacco Table 1. Each class comprises two or more different types. Individual types of flue-cured tobacco are no longer easily identified, and the type designation usually refers only to a marketing area.
Different countries may use different classification terms, but the general principle is the same. The major components of American blend cigarettes are flue-cured tobaccos often called Virginia, blond or bright tobaccos , air-cured burley and Maryland tobaccos, suncured Oriental tobaccos and reconstituted or homogenized sheet tobacco which is made from tobacco dust, fines and particles, and leaf ribs and stems Beauman et al. Blending is done to achieve specific pH, taste, burning characteristics and nicotine content and the type of tobacco blend significantly affects the pH, nicotine content and toxicity of the smoke.
The pH strongly influences the concentration of free nicotine in tobacco smoke, whereas the nitrate content influences the carcinogenic potential of smoke. There is a choice of 60 Nicotiana species and varieties of tobacco that can be blended.
However, almost all commercial tobacco products use Nicotiana tabacum species and small amount of N. Cured tobacco lines can contain between 0. The actual recipes for blending are closely kept trade secrets and the consolidation of the manufacturing industry worldwide seems to be leading towards a relatively homogeneous cigarette with relatively modest differences in tar and nicotine yield, but considerable diversity in nitrosamine yield Gray et al.
Roll-your-own RYO cigarettes are a cheaper substitute for commercially manufactured brands and are gaining in popularity worldwide.
In the USA, 3. A cigar is any roll of tobacco wrapped in leaf tobacco or any other substance containing tobacco. Some little cigars have cellulose acetate filter tips and are shaped like cigarettes. Cigarillos are small, narrow cigars with no cigarette paper or acetate filter.
Regular and premium cigars are available in various shapes and sizes and are rolled to a tip at one end. The dimensions of regular cigars are from to mm in length and up to 17 mm in diameter. Regular cigars weigh between 5 and 17 g. Premium cigars handmade from natural, long filler tobacco vary in size, ranging from 12 to 23 mm in diameter and to mm in length Stratton et al. In certain countries, considerable quantities of tobacco are consumed in forms other than cigarette smoking.
Kreteks are indigenous to Indonesia, but are also available in the USA. In India, about seven times more bidis are consumed than cigarettes. Bidis are used extensively in India and in the rural areas of several south-east Asian countries Stratton et al. A bidi is made by rolling a rectangular piece of a dried temburni leaf around approximately 0.
These cigarettes are perceived by some as a better-tasting, cheaper, safer or more natural alternative to conventional cigarettes Malson et al. Chutta is an Indian home-made cigar, 5—9 cm long, prepared by rolling local tobacco inside a sun-dried tobacco leaf.
Reverse smoking of chutta with the burning end inside the mouth is prevalent among women in the rural communities of Andhra Pradesh van der Eb et al. Chutta is also smoked in the usual way. Reliable figures for the proportion of tobacco that is used for pipes, hand-rolled cigarettes, chewing and snuff including oral snuff are not readily available for most countries.
Nor is there any good record of the types and amounts of tobacco used as smokeless products. Tobacco that is grown and used locally is not necessarily taxed or included in national statistics.
Both tobacco and tobacco smoke are very complex matrices consisting of thousands of compounds. A total of constituents have been isolated from tobacco and from the mainstream smoke of cigarettes Roberts, Mainstream smoke is the smoke that is released at the mouth end of the cigarette during puffing whereas sidestream smoke is the smoke released from the burning cone and through the cigarette paper, mostly between puffs.
A total of constituents are present both in tobacco and tobacco smoke Roberts, The quantitative composition of these different smoke matrices may, however, vary considerably. Advances in chemical analytical techniques and an increased knowledge of the genotoxic environmental agents brought the number of carcinogens identified in tobacco smoke to 69 by the year These carcinogens include 10 species of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs , six heterocyclic hydrocarbons, four volatile hydrocarbons, three nitrohydrocarbons, four aromatic amines, eight N -heterocyclic amines, 10 N -nitrosamines, two aldehydes, 10 miscellaneous organic compounds, nine inorganic compounds and three phenolic compounds Hoffmann et al.
Eleven compounds 2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl, benzene, vinyl chloride, ethylene oxide, arsenic, beryllium, nickel compounds, chromium, cadmium and polonium classified as IARC Group 1 human carcinogens have been reported as present in mainstream smoke IARC, , , a , ; Hoffmann et al. The types of tobacco used in smoking products are listed in Table 1. The most common tobacco product in developed countries is the manufactured cigarette.
A cigarette is defined as any roll of tobacco wrapped in paper or other non-tobacco material. Ciga-rettes can be either commercially manufactured or individually made roll-your-own. Cigarettes are lit, and the burning process produces smoke that is inhaled through the unlit end. Cigarettes are approximately 8 mm in diameter and 70— mm in length Borgerding et al. Unlike cigarette smoke, measurements of nicotine content and other constituents of tobacco have not been made or reported as a part of official tests of commercial cigarettes, although the smoke composition is directly dependent both qualitatively and quantitatively on the profile of tobacco smoke precursors.
The assays of a large number of cigarette brands from Canada, the United Kingdom, the USA and other countries around the world, have demonstrated that there is a very wide variation in concentrations of nicotine from 7. The country of origin plays a profound role in the chemical composition of the product e. International comparison of the concentration ranges for nitrate, nicotine and preformed tobacco-specific N -nitrosamines in tobacco from commercial cigarettes. The higher TSNA concentrations were usually measured in the tobacco from untipped cigarettes, especially those made of dark tobacco.
The highest levels were reported in the dark tobacco cigarettes Djordjevic et al. Despite the large variation in the amount of the components measured in various cigarettes by Fischer et al.
NNN concentrations increased with increased nitrate concentrations and did not depend on the tobacco type. Oriental and Virginia type cigarettes were very low in nitrate and also had the lowest NNN concentrations. The highest NNN concentrations were found in cigarettes made of dark tobaccos, which also had the highest nitrate levels.
The correlation between NNK and nitrate was not as strong as for NNN suggesting that other factors such as the tobacco type may have an influence on the formation of NNK. Although both nitrate and nicotine are precursors for NNN and NNK, only nitrate seems to play a predominant role in their formation. Different types of cigarette are manufactured to deliver different smoke yields under machine-smoking conditions.
Tobacco from ultra low-, low-, medium- and high-yield cigarettes contain similar amounts of preformed TSNA and their precursors Table 1.
The separate analysis of blend ingredients showed that pure Oriental and flue-cured, pure Virginia tobaccos contain the least nitrate mean, 1. The highest nitrate and NNK levels were measured in air-cured pure burley tobaccos mean, Similar data were reported for flue-cured and sun-dried tobaccos from the former USSR Djordjevic et al. Nitrate and tobacco-specific N -nitrosamine concentrations in different cured tobaccos produced worldwide.
An international comparison of nicotine content in blended cigarettes Kozlowski et al. The mean concentrations of NNN and NNK in green leaves harvested from all stalk positions of the NC flue-cured tobacco plant were ppb and ppb, respectively Djordjevic et al.
NCBI Bookshelf. Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking. The common tobacco plants of commerce had apparently been used for millenia by the peoples of the Western hemisphere before contact with Europeans began in The plants were cultivated by native Americans in Central and South America. Tobacco often had religious uses as depicted in Mayan temple carvings Slade,
Economic Trends in Tobacco
Several state and local laws protect the public from exposure to secondhand smoke. This website includes information about several of them. The code states, "No employee shall knowingly engage in the smoking of tobacco products in an enclosed space at a place of employment. All 18 incorporated cities in San Diego County have adopted local ordinances as well. All unincorporated areas follow the County of San Diego smoking ordinances.
Tobacco Control Resource Program (TCRP) Smoking Laws
Cigarette production peaked at Consumption peaked in and , but then fell off, in part due to the antismoking campaigns and the ban on smoking in public places Table 2. In , the macroeconomic stabilization plan the Real Plan eliminated the inflationary tax which had reached almost 90 percent per month. In the following two years, consumption was stable at around billion pieces. Nominal annual per capita consumption has been decreasing, from 1 pieces in to pieces in the late s. In , smuggling was estimated to supply 5 percent of domestic consumption, but soared after
Recommendation 1 : Each state should fund state tobacco control activities at the level recommended by the CDC. If it is constitutionally permissible, states should use a statutorily prescribed portion of their tobacco excise tax revenues to fund tobacco control programs. Recommendation 2 : States with excise tax rates below the level imposed by the top quintile of states should substantially increase their own rates to reduce consumption and to reduce smuggling and tax evasion. State excise tax rates should be indexed to inflation. Recommendation 3 : The federal government should substantially raise federal tobacco excise taxes, currently set at 39 cents a pack. Federal excise taxes should be indexed to inflation. Recommendation 4 : States and localities should enact complete bans on smoking in all nonresidential indoor locations, including workplaces, malls, restaurants, and bars.
The Public Health Tobacco Control Regulations, includes specific requirements for the protection of workers, children, and you from exposure to tobacco smoke. Rationale Tobacco smoke contains a deadly mix of more than 7, chemicals. More than of these chemicals are toxic and at least 69 can cause cancer.
Ричард, ты еще. - Да, - только не знаю, сколько протяну. В лесу послышались торопливая поступь, тонкий свист, и три темных силуэта со странными ружьями окружили Ричарда.
"Я по-за-ди тебя, ма-ма", - отвечал Бенджи. "По трубе потекла вода. Я не могу отыскать. Я не могу помочь им". Николь едва выплыла. Течение сделалось сильным. Но оно вынесло ее наружу - в лесной ручей. Одежда Николь зацепилась за ветки куста, свисавшего над водой. Она встала; отряхнулась и направилась по тропе. Стояла ночь.
Пять октопауков выстроились в линейку посреди улицы. Прямо позади них виднелась пирамида. Двое октопауков, находившихся справа, держали шестиугольную упаковку, которая была выше их роста. Четверо людей стояли напротив октопауков перед воротами города. Октопаук, находившийся в центре, - Элли назвала его "Верховным Оптимизатором" (после нескольких неудачных попыток обнаружить точное соответствие обязанностям главы октопауков на человеческом языке), - шагнул вперед и начал речь.
Я надеялся, что ты поможешь мне решить эту загадку. В конце концов, доктор, у меня нет твоих познаний в биологии. Коридор впереди разделился надвое. Обе ветви направлялись под углом в 45ь к длинному прямому проходу, идущему из убежища. - Ну, мадам де Жарден, куда пойдем.
- улыбаясь, Ричард посветил фонарем в обе стороны. Тоннели казались совершенно одинаковыми. - Давай сперва налево, - проговорила Николь, как только Ричард набросал контуры карты в своем переносном компьютере.
Лишь через несколько сотен метров левый проход начал меняться: коридор расширился, превратился в наклонный пандус, огибавший чрезвычайно толстую сердцевину, и опустился по крайней мере еще на сотню метров в глубь оболочки Рамы.
Спускаясь вниз, Ричард и Николь заметили впереди свет.
"Как же они такими выросли. - вдруг подумала Элли. - Как можно из улыбающегося и любопытного ребенка сделать враждебного ко всему и злобного взрослого.
Виновата в этом наследственность или среда?" - Видите ли, джентльмены, - проговорила Элли, выслушав следующий вопрос, - дело явно складывается не в мою пользу.
Нет, - ответил Орел. Он не стал уточнять.
Длинную плоскую металлическую "равнину" нарушали лишь комплексы какого-то оборудования и прозрачные купола - пузыри, как их стали звать, - беспорядочно разбросанные на ее просторах. Один из них, прямо перед окном, поднимался над поверхностью на две сотни метров. Другие были весьма невелики. Из окна Николь видела одиннадцать куполов.
Наконец спросила Эпонина. Ричард кивнул.