Encyclopedia of New York State. Syracuse University Press , 19 thg 5, - trang. The Encyclopedia of New York State is one of the most complete works on the Empire State to be published in a half-century. In nearly 2, pages and 4, signed entries, this single volume captures the impressive complexity of New York State as a historic crossroads of people and ideas, as a cradle of abolitionism and feminism, and as an apex of modern urban, suburban, and rural life. The Encyclopedia is packed with fascinating details from fields ranging from sociology and geography to history.
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Automation in the foundry and forging industry
Chief Engineer, American Metallurgical Corp. Advantage has been taken of a reprinting to revise, extensively, the portions of the book relating to the modern science of metallography. Considerable of the matter relating to the influence of chemical composition upon the properties of alloy steels has been rewritten.
Furthermore, opportunity has been taken to include some brief notes on methods of physical testing—whereby the metallurgist judges of the excellence of his metal in advance of its actual performance in service. The ever increasing uses of steel in all industries and the necessity of securing the best results with the material used, make a knowledge of the proper working of steel more important than ever before.
For it is not alone the quality of the steel itself or the alloys used in its composition, but the proper working or treatment of the steel which determines whether or not the best possible use has been made of it. With this in mind, the authors have drawn, not only from their own experience but from the best sources available, information as to the most approved methods of working the various kinds of steel now in commercial use.
These include low carbon, high carbon and alloy steels of various kinds, and from a variety of industries. The automotive field has done much to develop not only new alloys but efficient methods of working them and has been drawn on liberally so as to show the best practice.
The practice in government arsenals on steels used in fire arms is also given. While not intended as a treatise on steel making or metallurgy in any sense, it has seemed best to include a little information as to the making of different steels and to give considerable general information which it is believed will be helpful to those who desire to become familiar with the most modern methods of working steel.
It is with the hope that this volume, which has endeavored to give due credit to all sources of information, may prove of value to its readers and through them to the industry at large.
In spite of all that has been written about iron and steel there are many hazy notions in the minds of many mechanics regarding them. It is not always clear as to just what makes the difference between iron and steel.
We know that high-carbon steel makes a better cutting tool than low-carbon steel. And yet carbon alone does not make all the difference because we know that cast iron has more carbon than tool steel and yet it does not make a good cutting tool.
Most of the carbon in cast iron is in a form like graphite, which is almost pure carbon, and is therefore called graphitic carbon. The resemblance can be seen by noting how cast-iron borings blacken the hands just as does graphite, while steel turnings do not have the same effect. The difference is due to the fact that the carbon in steel is not in a graphitic form as well as because it is present in smaller quantities. In making steel in the old way the cast iron was melted and the carbon and other impurities burned out of it, the melted iron being stirred or "puddled," meanwhile.
The resulting puddled iron, also known as wrought iron, is very low in carbon; it is tough, and on being broken appears to be made up of a bundle of long fibers. Then the iron was heated to redness for several days in material containing carbon charcoal until it absorbed the desired amount, which made it steel, just as case-hardening iron or steel adds carbon to the outer surface of the metal.
The carbon absorbed by the iron does not take on a graphitic form, however, as in the case of cast iron, but enters into a chemical compound with the iron, a hard brittle substance called "cementite" by metallurgists.
In fact, the difference between the hard, brittle cementite and the soft, greasy graphite, accounts for many of the differences between steel and gray cast iron. Wrought iron, Page x which has very little carbon of any sort in it, is fairly soft and tough. The properties of wrought iron are the properties of pure iron. As more and more carbon is introduced into the iron, it combines with the iron and distributes itself throughout the metal in extremely small crystals of cementite, and this brittle, hard substance lends more and more hardness and strength to the steel, at the expense of the original toughness of the iron.
As more and more carbon is contained in the alloy—for steel is a true alloy—it begins to appear as graphite, and its properties counteract the remaining brittle cementite. Eventually, in gray cast iron, we have properties which would be expected of wrought iron, whose tough metallic texture was shot through with flakes of slippery, weak graphite.
The iron bars, after heating in charcoal, were broken and the carbon content judged by the fracture. Those which had been in the hottest part of the furnace would have the deepest "case" and highest carbon. So when the steel was graded, and separated into different piles, a few bars of like kind were broken into short lengths, melted in fire-clay crucibles at an intense white heat, cast carefully into iron molds, and the resulting ingot forged into bars under a crude trip hammer.
This melting practice is still in use for crucible steel, and will be described further on page 4. There are four processes now used for the manufacture of steel. The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then in blowing a current of air through holes in the bottom of the vessel into the liquid metal. The air blast burns the white hot metal, and the temperature increases.
The action is exactly similar to what happens in a fire box under forced draft. And in both cases some parts of the material burn easier and more quickly than others. Thus it is that some of the impurities in the pig iron—including the carbon—burn first, and if the blast is shut off when they are gone but little of the iron is destroyed.
Unfortunately sulphur, one of the most dangerous impurities, is not expelled in the process. A bessemer converter is shown in Fig. This shows how the air blast is forced in from one side, through the trunnion, and up through the metal. Where the steel is finished the converter is tilted, or swung on its trunnions, the blast turned off, and the steel poured out of the top. The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors in the side walls.
Through openings at one end of the furnace come hot air and gas, which burn in the furnace, producing sufficient heat to melt the charge and refine it of its impurities. Lime and other nonmetallic substances are put in the furnace. These melt, forming a "slag" which floats on the metal and aids materially in the refining operations.
In the bessemer process air is forced through the metal. In the open-hearth furnace the metal is protected from the flaming gases by a slag covering. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that the final product will not contain so much gas.
A diagram of a modern regenerative furnace is shown in Fig. Page 3 Air and gas enter the hearth through chambers loosely packed with hot fire brick, burn, and exit to the chimney through another pair of chambers, giving to them some of the heat which would otherwise waste.
The direction is reversed about every twenty minutes by changing the position of the dampers. Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. The crucible is covered, lowered into a melting hole Fig. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.
If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered down into "billets" of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size.
Finished bars are packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed, Page 5 and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and testing the steel is ready for market. The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric furnace. These furnaces are of various sizes and designs; their size may be sufficient for only lb.
Designs vary widely according to the electrical principles used. A popular furnace is the 6-ton Heroult furnace illustrated in Fig. It is seen to be a squat kettle, made of heavy sheet steel, with a dished bottom and mounted so it can be tilted forward slightly and completely drained.
This kettle is lined with special fire brick which will withstand most intense heat and resist the cutting action of hot metal and slag. For a roof, a low dome of fire brick is provided. The shell and lining is pierced in front for a pouring spout, and on either side by doors, through which the raw material is charged. Two or three carbon "electrodes"—in. Electrical connections are made to the upper ends, and a very high current sent through them.
This causes tremendous arcs to form between the lower ends of the electrodes and the metal below, and these electric arcs are the only source of heat in this style of furnace. Electric furnaces can be used to do the same work as is done in crucible furnaces—that is to say, merely melt a charge of carefully selected pure raw materials. On the other hand it can be used to produce very high-grade steel from cheap and impure metal, when it acts more like an open-hearth furnace. It can push the refining even further than the latter furnace does, for two reasons: first the bath is not swept continuously by a flaming mass of gases; second, the temperature can be run up higher, enabling the operator to make up slags which are difficult to melt but very useful to remove small traces of impurities from the metal.
Electric furnaces are widely used, not only in the iron industry, but in brass, copper and aluminum works. It is a useful melter of cold metal for making castings. It can be used to convert iron into steel or vice versa.
Its most useful sphere, however, is as a refiner of metal, wherein it takes either cold steel or molten steel from open hearth or bessemer furnaces, and gives it the finishing touches.
As an illustration of the furnace reactions that take place the following schedule is given, showing the various stages in the making of a heat of electric steel. The steel to be made was a high-carbon chrome steel used for balls for ball bearings:. The deoxidizing slag is now formed by additions of lime, coke and fluorspar and for some analyses ferrosilicon.
The slag changes from black to white as the metallic oxides are reduced by these deoxidizing additions and the reduced metals return to the bath. A good finishing slag is creamy white, porous and viscous. After the slag becomes white, some time is necessary for the absorption of the sulphur in the bath by the slag.
The white slag disintegrates to a powder when exposed to the atmosphere and has a pronounced odor of acetylene when wet. Further additions of recarburizing material are added as needed to meet the analysis.
The further reactions are shown by the following:. Page 8 The furnace was rotated forward to an inclined position and the charge poured into the ladle, from which in turn it was poured into molds. Electric steel, in fact, all fine steel, should be cast in big-end-up molds with refractory hot tops to prevent any possibility of pipage in the body of the ingot. In the further processing of the ingot, whether in the rolling mill or forge, special precautions should be taken in the heating, in the reduction of the metal and in the cooling.
No attempt is made to compare the relative merits of open hearth and electric steel; results in service, day in and day out, have, however, thoroughly established the desirability of electric steel. Ten years of experience indicate that electric steel is equal to crucible steel and superior to open hearth. The rare purity of the heat derived from the electric are, combined with definite control of the slag in a neutral atmosphere, explains in part the superiority of electric steel.
Commenting on this recently Dr.
No change in outcomes. The qualification has been specifically developed to be delivered to people who are existing engineering tradespersons or delivered to apprentices in an Engineering Trade who choose to study at a higher level during their apprenticeship. The qualification packaging has been developed on an assumption that competency will be developed through an integrated combination of on and off-the-job learning strategies such as those delivered through a formal apprenticeship. The qualification may also be achieved through formal skills recognition assessment processes. The job role involves application of additional skills in the learner's trade or cross skills from other trades. Job roles may include the design, assembly, manufacture, installation, modification, testing, fault finding, commissioning, maintenance and service of equipment and machinery, the fabrication of structures and assemblies, manufacture of sheet metal work, as well as use of relevant machinery, equipment and joining techniques.
Release 6 - equivalent. ISC advice on target groups and pathways included. The qualification has been specifically developed to reflect the minimum training requirement specified in the Award for employment in the above occupation. The qualification packaging has been developed on an assumption that competency will be developed through a combination of on and off-the-job learning strategies such as those delivered through a formal traineeship. The qualification may also be achieved through formal skills recognition assessment processes. Competency development would typically be undertaken through an Australian Apprenticeships arrangement where the integration of on and off-the-job training would be specified in the Training Plan associated with the Contract of Training between the employer and trainee. This qualification is not suited and should not be used for people who are not employed in an engineering production or manufacturing environment.
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Mechanical engineering is a broad field, offering jobs for mechanical engineers in almost every industry. This breadth of opportunity makes careers in mechanical engineering appealing to new engineering graduates and young professional engineers. To help you determine in which industries you might want to pursue an entry level mechanical engineering job, we have advice from engineering career development experts, salary information and details on these top-hiring industries. The automotive and aerospace industries are popular with mechanical engineering graduates, said James Jones, associate head of the Purdue University School of Mechanical Engineering. This multitude of choice often leaves young engineers uncertain of the best entry-level jobs to pursue, especially given what little information may be offered in job postings. The sheer variety of industries that employ mechanical engineers, however, means that the entry-level job descriptions will look very different from one another depending on the company, industry and discipline in addition to the job title. You may need to figure out what the job will involve based on what is given in those less-than-clear job descriptions. This means that the qualifications a company asks for can look quite different from posting to posting — some may even sound intimidating. Oftentimes, postings seem to ask for far more in the way of experience, skills or education than most new engineers see themselves as having right out of the gate. As a result, they may not apply because they feel underqualified.
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What is an Entry-Level Mechanical Engineering Job?
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Chief Engineer, American Metallurgical Corp. Advantage has been taken of a reprinting to revise, extensively, the portions of the book relating to the modern science of metallography. Considerable of the matter relating to the influence of chemical composition upon the properties of alloy steels has been rewritten. Furthermore, opportunity has been taken to include some brief notes on methods of physical testing—whereby the metallurgist judges of the excellence of his metal in advance of its actual performance in service.