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In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Help us improve our products. Sign up to take part. A Nature Research Journal. Nutrition has multiple roles during space flight from providing sufficient nutrients to meet the metabolic needs of the body and to maintain good health, to the beneficial psychosocial aspects related to the meals. Nutrition is central to the functioning of the body; poor nutrition compromises all the physiological systems.

Nutrition is therefore likely to have a key role in counteracting the negative effects of space flight e. Moreover, it has been recognized that the human diet contains, in addition to essential macronutrients, a complex array of naturally occurring bioactive micronutrients that may confer significant long-term health benefits. It is therefore critical that astronauts be adequately nourished during missions.

Problems of nutritional origin are often treatable by simply providing the appropriate nutrients and adequate recommendations.

This review highlights six key issues that have been identified as space research priorities in nutrition field: in-flight energy balance; altered feeding behavior; development of metabolic stress; micronutrient deficiency; alteration of gut microflora; and altered fluid and electrolytes balance. For each of these topics, relevance for space exploration, knowledge gaps and proposed investigations are described.

Finally, the nutritional questions related to bioastronautics research are very relevant to multiple ground-based-related health issues. The potential spin-offs are both interesting scientifically and potentially of great clinical importance.

Nutrition has several key roles during space flights from the basic nutritive intake to meet the metabolic needs of the body and to maintain the organism in good health, to the beneficial psychosocial aspects related to the meals. Conversely, poor nutrition compromises most of the physiological systems.

Nutrition is likely to have a key role in counteracting many of the negative effects of space flight e. Nutritional deficiencies are often encountered with space flight. As missions increase in duration, any dietary imbalance will become progressively more detrimental.

Problems of nutritional origin are often treatable by simply providing the appropriate nutrients and recommendations. Of particular concern for long-duration missions is the inability to maintain energy balance. When energy intake exceeds energy expenditure, energy balance is positive resulting in creation of reserves of fat and eventually obesity. In contrast, when daily energy expenditure is greater than dietary intake, energy balance is negative leading to a depletion of fat and muscle stores and loss of body mass and eventually starvation.

Energy requirements during space flight are similar to those on the ground. Although such energy deficits are physiologically tolerable for short-term missions because of the availability of body fat stores, a chronic negative energy balance becomes a significant detrimental issue jeopardizing health and performance for long-term missions.

A pre-requisite to advising astronauts on how to maintain energy balance is to know what the exact energy requirements are. It is also important to include the additional energy costs of any exercise countermeasures used when determining astronaut energy needs. Food should actually provide a balanced diet and not empty calories.

This is why energy, macronutrients, micronutrients, and vitamins requirements need to be evaluated for long-term missions, and nutrition countermeasures need to be tested. Bed rest is an appropriate ground-based model for most systems. For a Mars mission, there are technological challenges of providing a variety of palatable and nutritious foods, and ideally, some fresh foods.

This is important not only for the obvious nutritive role of maintaining crew health, but also for the psychological aspects. Nutritional shortcomings can affect mood and behavior and psychosocial cohesion between the crewmembers. Finally, the nutritional questions related to bioastronautics research are very relevant to multiple ground-based-related health issues, including chronic-age-related conditions.

The potential spin-offs are both interesting from a technical point of view and clinically of great importance. The project THESEUS funded in by the European Union aimed to develop an integrated life sciences research life roadmap enabling European human space exploration in synergy with the ESA strategy, taking advantage of the expertise available in Europe and identifying the potential of non-space applications and dual research and development.

Fourteen disciplinary Expert Groups EG composed of key European and International experts in their field met four times and based their work on brainstorming sessions dedicated to identifying key issues in their specific field of knowledge.

Key issues were defined as disciplinary topics representing challenges for human space exploration, requiring future attention in the future. These key issues were addressed to the scientific community through an online consultation; comments and inputs received were used to refine them and to consider knowledge gaps and research needs associated with them. Within the nutrition expert group of the THESEUS European project, six key issues related to exploration have been identified as space research priorities in the nutrition field.

Each of these topics is briefly introduced followed by relevance for space exploration, knowledge gaps and proposed investigations. The earth benefits and transdisciplinary aspects of the nutrition field research in the context of space science are then described.

As stated in the introduction, a major medical issue of space flight is body mass loss of astronauts during the space missions. Among the four published studies that examined energy balance during space flights, 5 , 7 — 9 three of them demonstrated a negative energy balance. Following a space flight of 16 days, Stein et al. Such an energy deficit is tolerable for short-term missions because of the high energy density of fat stores, but will have serious deleterious consequences over the long term if the energy imbalance is allowed to persist.

A chronic energy deficit can jeopardize the health of the crewmembers and the success of missions. On the ground, a chronic negative energy balance induces impaired physical performances of muscle and cardiovascular functions and increased muscle fatigability, a greater susceptibility to infection, a compromised wound-healing capacity, an altered sleep and an overall reduced well-being. It has been suggested that a chronic energy deficit can exacerbate some of the deleterious physiological adaptations to space environment Figure 1.

However, in an elegant cross-over randomized study, Florian et al. Of note, this study was conducted in nine participants only and the authors acknowledged it may have been underpowered. Stein et al. Because muscle loss observed in astronauts is primarily due to a decrease in protein synthesis rather than to an increased protein catabolism, inadequate energy intake may contribute to muscle atrophy that is systematically observed during space flights.

It has indeed been shown that chronic caloric restriction contributes to lower muscle 13 and bone mass. Although the reasons for the inability of the astronauts to maintain a stable body mass requires further studies, the origin of the negative energy balance is likely twofold, i.

Physical exercise increases total energy expenditure TEE that needs to be balanced by greater energy intake that is not necessarily easy for the astronauts to consume. Exercise may further affect feeding behavior with an acute anorexia phenomenon, which would exaggerate the loss of appetite.

Given this chronic malnutrition, the needs for energy, and more specifically macronutrients and micronutrients, have to be evaluated with accuracy. Beyond this health aspect, the accurate estimation of in-flight energy needs can have important economic consequences. It has been estimated for a Mars mission of about 3 years and for a crew composed of 6 members that 22 tons of hydrated food, without taking into account water needs, should be carried in the space shuttle.

Given that carrying 0. It is extremely challenging to conduct an in-flight study to measure energy needs given the technical constraints and the other priority objectives of space missions. Furthermore, inhabited space flights are pretty rare and the number of astronauts rather restricted. The bed-rest ground analog model is therefore useful. To control energy balance of the astronauts, it is important to examine its different components, i. Daily TEE can be divided into three components: resting metabolic rate RMR ; the diet-induced thermogenesis and the physical activity energy expenditure.

RMR corresponds to the minimal energy required to maintain the vital functions of the organism when at rest, fasted, and in thermoneutrality. It represents the main component of TEE. Diet-induced thermogenesis represents energy needed to digest, process, transport, and store nutrients following meal consumption. Physical activity energy expenditure is the amount of energy expended owing to any body movement.

The calculation of daily energy needs take into account RMR and a coefficient proportional to physical activity of individuals. During bed-rest studies, 6 energy needs of men and women were, respectively, evaluated to 1. These equations were similar to those derived in-flight from four astronauts by Stein et al. Consequently, energy needs seem to be equivalent to those on Earth and can be estimated on ground by using the bed-rest model. On average, energy needs in space are about 7.

Astronauts have in addition an intense physical exercise training aiming to counteract microgravity-induced muscle atrophy and bone demineralization. The energy expended as part of this exercise training needs to be taken into account for energy needs evaluation. In fact, likely it is the difficulty of estimating the energy cost related to exercise training that largely contributes to the in-flight energy deficit. One of the challenges is to know with precision how much the astronauts are exercising given that, like on Earth, the actual regime of exercise is usually much lower than the prescribed regime, both in terms of intensity and volume.

As a result the actual energy regime onboard space stations is likely not as intense as prescribed. The exact exercise-related energy expenditure, however, needs to be objectively determined. In addition to these traditional components that are taken into account on Earth, astronauts perform extravehicular activity EVA.

This type of physical activity has an estimated energy cost of When estimating energy needs, an additional 2. As a result, energy needs would be 9. A space study is currently being conducted in the ISS to examine the contribution of each component of TEE and thus better understand the in-flight regulation of energy balance and estimate the daily energy requirements. A new generation of accelerometer-like devices have been developed for studies on Earth that are capable of defining the energy time budget of humans 18 , 19 and wild animals.

The bioimpedance spectroscopy systems recently developed measure body composition 23 and can therefore determine changes in body composition and thus energy balance changes over time.

The lack of an accurate method to assess in real-time the changes in energy balance precludes the monitoring of the nutritional status of the individual astronauts. Energy balance status needs to be assessed every other week and not less than once a month.

The assessment should not, however, be confounded by changes in body composition e. The instruments used to measure these different outcomes should also not be disturbed by microgravity environment. Finally, the instruments should allow a non-invasive measurement of energy status and be cost-effective. Future investigations need to focus their efforts to detect early changes in energy status Figure 2.

This will require the validation of these methodologies, which include bioimpedance spectroscopy and latest generation of three-axial accelerometry and heart rate, against a gold standard method such as the doubly labeled water method. Such validation will have to be performed in flight to assess precision and accuracy of these methods in detecting in-flight changes in body composition and TEE Figure 2.

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Free Energy Principle in Human Postural Control System: Skin Stretch Feedback Reduces the Entropy

The present invention relates to systems for tracking the movement of multiple objects within a predefined area. Early systems were designed to recognize parts moving along assembly lines to aid the manufacturing process. More recently, many inventions have been put forth to recognize humans and there movement. The variability of humans and their clothing as well as the complexity of the backgrounds within which they endeavor has presented a significant challenge to state-of-the-art technology. Considerable attention has been paid to various techniques for discerning the human shape from its background using edge detection techniques that look to remove stationary, i.

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IBM is an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York , with operations in over countries. IBM is incorporated in New York. IBM produces and sells computer hardware , middleware and software , and provides hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. IBM is also a major research organization, holding the record for most U. IBM has continually shifted business operations by focusing on higher-value, more profitable markets. Also in , IBM announced that it would go " fabless ", continuing to design semiconductors , but offloading manufacturing to GlobalFoundries. Julius E. Pitrap patented the computing scale in ; [8] Alexander Dey invented the dial recorder ; [9] Herman Hollerith — patented the Electric Tabulating Machine ; [10] and Willard Bundy invented a time clock to record a worker's arrival and departure time on a paper tape in They manufactured machinery for sale and lease, ranging from commercial scales and industrial time recorders, meat and cheese slicers, to tabulators and punched cards. Thomas J.

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The United Nations has proclaimed as the International Year of Sport and Physical Education, a year to accelerate action towards ensuring that everyone, regardless of gender, race or ability, has the opportunity to enjoy quality participation in physical activity and sport. The United Nations' Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities declares that member states should take measures to ensure that persons with disabilities have equal opportunities for recreation and sports. Article 31 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, signed in , and ratified in , recognises "the right of the child to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age of the child and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts. The Report of the Commission on the Status of People with Disabilities makes nine recommendations regarding sports, leisure and recreation for people with disabilities.

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Aim and Scope of Neurosurgery. Supplemental Digital Content. Neurosurgery , the official journal of the CNS, publishes top research on clinical and experimental neurosurgery covering the latest developments in science, technology, and medicine. The journal attracts contributions from the most respected authorities in the field. It includes a wealth of information applicable to researchers and practicing neurosurgeons. This journal is indispensable as the most comprehensive source in neurosurgery. Neurosurgery is the official publication of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons. The goal of Neurosurgery is to provide a medium for the prompt publication of scientific papers dealing with clinical or experimental neurosurgery, solicited manuscripts on specific subjects from experts, case reports, and other information of interest to neurosurgeons.

The persistent membership that was extended across sequential units of invasion games Most of the research on Sport Education focused on competency and up by all students (referees, equipment manager, practice time managers, etc.) Content development: Table 1 provides detailed information about the tactical.

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Referees are essential for sports such as handball. However, there are few tools available to analyze the activity of handball referees. The aim of this study was to design an instrument for observing the behavior of referees in handball competitions and to analyze the resulting data by polar coordinate analysis. For the data quality control analysis, we calculated Pearson's 0. In the generalizability analysis, the absolute and relative generalizability coefficients were 0. Polar coordinate analysis of referee decisions showed that correct calls were more common for central court and 7-meter throw calls. Likewise, calls were more likely to be incorrect in terms of both errors of omission and commission when taken from the goal-line position. Referees have a key role in elite sports competitions Cruz, ; Dohmen and Sauermann, Officiating a match between two teams is a difficult task that is further complicated by the need to take decisions on a range of events that occur within a short space of time Plessner, ; Mascarenhas and Smith, The decisions taken by referees can influence the unfolding of events during a match and even decide the outcome Philippe et al.

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The mission of AP-SMART is to inspire clinicians, practitioners, scientists and engineers to work towards a common goal to improve quality of life in the international community. The Journal publishes original research, reviews, editorials, perspectives, and letters to the Editor. Multidisciplinary research with collaboration amongst clinicians and scientists from different disciplines will be the trend in the coming decades. AP-SMART provides a platform for the exchange of new clinical and scientific information in the most precise and expeditious way to achieve timely dissemination of information and cross-fertilization of ideas. The information presented aims to provide a scientific yet practical approach to these five areas: Sports medicine—itself a field with cross-disciplinary dimensions, including sports traumatology, cardiology, endocrinology, accident and emergency medicine, physiology, biochemistry and biomechanics. Whilst each of these fields serves a specific domain, they all contribute importantly to the overall care of athletes. Arthroscopy—recent advances in skills and technology have driven arthroscopy to the forefront of surgical development in minimally invasive interventions for sports traumatology. Rehabilitation—an integral part of the overall management of sports trauma, comprising a comprehensive program of treatment with allied health professionals, performance optimization, preventive measures and outcome evaluation Sports technology—of vital importance to biomechanical and biological research in arthroplasty and sports medicine, allowing new ideas to be tested, developed and applied in the field. We aim to establish strong links between engineers, scientists, biomechanists and administrators involved with sports and sports technology.

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The teaching and learning of games and sport-based activities has historically been the dominant form of the physical education curricula. With an interest in providing to students meaningful and culturally situated sporting experiences, Sport Education is probably the most implemented and researched pedagogical model worldwide. The participants were an experienced physical education teacher and one seventh-grade class totaling 26 students 10 girls and 16 boys. Inter-group differences and pre-test to post-test improvements within each season were analyzed through 2 time x group sport repeated measures ANOVA tests.

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US6567116B1 - Multiple object tracking system - Google Patents

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