This contribution would have been much greater had the animal by-products been also efficiently utilized. Efficient utilization of by-products has direct impact on the economy and environmental pollution of the country. Non-utilization or under utilization of by-products not only lead to loss of potential revenues but also lead to the added and increasing cost of disposal of these products. Non-utilization of animal by-products in a proper way may create major aesthetic and catastrophic health problems. Besides pollution and hazard aspects, in many cases meat, poultry and fish processing wastes have a potential for recycling raw materials or for conversion into useful products of higher value. Traditions, culture and religion are often important when a meat by-product is being utilized for food.
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Whey, the liquid residue of cheese, casein and yoghurt production, is one of the biggest reservoirs of food protein available today. World whey output at approximately million tonnes in contains some 1. The latest research shows that whey protein is arguably the most nutritionally valuable protein available; little wonder that nutritional markets such as sports, clinical and infant nutrition are driving an unprecedented investment level in dairy production.
Whey as a by-product from the manufacture of hard, semi-hard or soft cheese and rennet casein is known as sweet whey and has a pH of 5. Manufacture of mineral-acid precipitated casein yields acid whey with a pH of 4. Table Whey is very often diluted with water. The figures above relate to undiluted whey. The rest is amino acids and peptides glycomacropeptide from renneting action on casein. Advances in membrane filtration and chromatography have underpinned economically viable commercial processes for the fractionation of whey into highly purified protein and lactose products that allow end users to take advantage of the various functional properties of individual whey components.
This is a trend that is expected to continue as research uncovers new bioactive properties and consumers become more educated about the nutritional value of whey. The block diagram in Figure Production of whey powder, delactosed whey and lactose has traditionally dominated processing of whey solids.
The shift in the image of whey from an unwanted by-product to a highly-valuable nutritional source is complete. Some of the products now in use are described in this chapter.
Zoom Fig. Whey must be processed as soon as possible after it is drawn from the cheese curd as its temperature and composition promote the growth of bacteria that lead to protein degradation and lactic acid formation.
It is recommended that whey is drawn directly from the cheese process into short duration buffer storage then clarified, separated, pasteurized and cooled into storage to await further processing.
If transporting the whey it can be concentrated by membrane filtration to reduct transport costs. Casein fines are always present in whey. They have an adverse effect on fat separation and should therefore be removed first. The collected fines are often pressed in the same way as cheese, after which they can be used in processed cheese manufacture and, after a period of ripening, also in cooking.
Normally, this works well for short maturation cheeses such as mozzarella, but note that the risk of rancid off flavours is heightened as the maturation time is increased. It is important to break the recycle loop to avoid the build-up of free fatty acids and other undesirables that are not trapped in the curd matrix.
For cheddar production, whey cream is generally not reused due to the sensitivity of the starter to bacteriophages. In some of these cases, whey cream is converted to whey butter. Whey that is to be stored before processing must be either chilled or pasteurized and chilled as soon as the fat and fines have been removed. Longer periods of storage and utilization of the whey in high-quality infant formula and sports nutrition applications require pasteurization of the whey directly after the removal of fat and fines; generally, this approach is recommended in order to cater to the increasingly strict demands on product quality.
Then whey can either be transported to another site for further processing e. The product is held in the crystallizers for 4 — 8 hours to obtain a uniform distribution of small lactose crystals, which will give a non-hygroscopic product when spray-dried. Concentrated whey is a supersaturated lactose solution and, under certain temperature and concentration conditions, the lactose can sometimes crystallize spontaneously before the whey leaves the evaporator.
Basically, whey is dried in the same way as milk, i. The use of drum dryers involves a problem: it is difficult to scrape the layer of dried whey from the drum surface.
A filler, such as wheat or rye bran, is therefore mixed into the whey before drying, to make the dried product easier to scrape off. Spray drying of whey, is at present, the most widely used method of drying. Before being dried, the whey concentrate is usually treated as mentioned above to form small lactose crystals, as this results in a non-hygroscopic product which does not go lumpy when it absorbs moisture.
Acid whey from cottage cheese and casein production is difficult to dry due to its high lactic acid content. It agglomerates and forms lumps in the spray dryer. Drying can be facilitated by neutralization and additives, such as skim milk and cereal products.
Increasingly it is preferred that lactic acid is removed by a combination of nanofiltration and electrodialysis improving flavour, nutritional profile, drying and handling. Whey proteins were originally isolated through the use of various precipitation techniques, but nowadays membrane separation fractionation and chromatographic processes are used in addition to both precipitation and complexing techniques. Whey proteins, as constituents of whey powders, can easily be produced by careful drying of whey.
Isolation of whey proteins has therefore been developed. The whey proteins obtained by membrane separation or ion exchange possess good functional properties, i. Protein concentrates have a very good amino acid profile, with high proportions of available lysine and cysteine.
Whey protein concentrates WPC are powders made by drying the retentates from ultrafiltration of whey. Example: kg of whey yields approximately 17 kg of retentate and 83 kg of permeate at close to six-fold 5. Percentage protein in dry matter according to the values in Table The concentrations of lactose, NPN and ash are generally the same in the retentate serum and permeate as in the original whey, but a slight retention of these components is reported.
It is then necessary to diafilter the concentrate to remove more of the lactose and ash and raise the concentration of protein relative to the total dry matter. Diafiltration is a procedure in which water is added to the feed as filtration proceeds, in order to wash out low molecular components which will pass through the membranes, basically lactose and minerals.
A process line for the production of drier whey protein concentrate using UF is shown in Figure For further details about UF, see Chapter 6. Advances in microfiltration have drastically improved the quality and economics of product available, moving from a traditionally hot ceramic filter process to a cold organic spiral wound process in recent years. Microfiltration also concentrates fat globule membranes and most of the bacteria in the MF retentate, which is collected and processed separately; in some cases, this retentate is dried on the same dryer as the WPI, resulting in a high fat WPC powder.
The defatted MF permeate is routed to a second UF plant for concentration; this stage also includes diafiltration. As Figure The retentate is pumped to the MF plant 3 , while the permeate goes to a collecting tank after RO concentration and cooling.
The retentate from MF treatment, which contains most of the fat and bacteria, is collected separately, and the defatted permeate is forwarded to further ultrafiltration with diafiltration 4.
These are explained in more detail below. Consequently, there is an absence of GMP glycomacropeptide , lactic acid levels above those that are naturally occurring, degradation of proteins by starter culture enzymes and risks from bacteriophages. As figure The retentate, in liquid or powder form, can be used in a variety of products where casein fortification is beneficial; this includes cheese, dairy desserts and beverages.
The resulting permeate from UF 2 is concentrated directly and then stored ready for further processing. The type of membrane used to concentrate permeate depends on whether it is being used to standardize protein in milk powders, spray-dried as permeate or used for lactose production.
This is explained in more detail below. In general, serum protein or whey proteins cannot be precipitated by rennet or acid. It is, however, possible to precipitate whey proteins with acid, if they are first denatured by heat.
The process is divided into two stages:. Denatured whey proteins can be mixed with cheese milk prior to renneting; they are then retained in the lattice structure formed by the casein molecules during coagulation. This discovery led to intensive efforts to find a method of precipitating and separating whey proteins, as well as a technique for optimizing the yield.
Adding denatured whey proteins to the cheese is not permitted by law in several countries, and also for certain types of cheese. Denatured proteins, either by adding or by pasteurization at high temperatures, affect both yield and ripening of the cheese.
Figure After pH adjustment, the whey is pumped via an intermediate tank 1 to a plate heat exchanger 2 for regenerative heating. Acid is introduced during this stage, to lower the pH. The acid is either organic or inorganic e. Those proteins that can be, and have been, modified by heat are precipitated within 60 seconds in a tubular holding section 4.
The addition of concentrated whey protein to cheese milk — principally in the manufacture of soft and semi-hard cheeses — causes only minor changes in the coagulating properties.
The structure of the curd becomes finer and more uniform than with conventional methods. The processed whey proteins are more hydrophilic than casein. There are currently a few options available for the further processing of UF permeate from whey or skim milk as shown below. Only milk UF permeate and lactose can be used for the standardization of protein in milk powders.
The processes for the manufacture of lactose and permeate powder are explained below in Fig. Lactose is the main constituent of whey. There are two basic methods of recovery, depending on the raw material:.
Both methods produce a mother-lye, molasses, which can be dried and used as fodder. The feed value can be increased considerably if the molasses is desalinated and if high-quality proteins are added.
Several of these factors are mutually related to each other, for example degree of saturation and viscosity. The tanks have cooling jackets and equipment for control of the cooling temperature. They are also fitted with special agitators. After crystallization, the slurry proceeds to decanter centrifuges and a sieve centrifuge 3 for separation of the crystals, which are dried 4 to a powder.
Following grinding typically in a hammer mill and sifting, the lactose is packed 5. For efficient and simple separation of lactose crystals from the mother liquor, crystallization must be arranged so that the crystals exceed 0. The degree of crystallization is determined in principle by the quantity of b-lactose converted to the desired a-lactose form, and the cooling of the concentrate must therefore be carefully controlled and optimized.
Various types of centrifuges can be used for harvesting lactose crystals. One is the horizontal decanter centrifuge Figure Two machines are installed in series. The lactose from the first is reprocessed in the second for more efficient separation.
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The beverage industry consists of two major categories and eight sub-groups. The non-alcoholic category is comprised of soft drink syrup manufacture; soft drink and water bottling and canning; fruit juices bottling, canning and boxing; the coffee industry and the tea industry. Alcoholic beverage categories include distilled spirits, wine and brewing. Although many of these beverages, including beer, wine and tea, have been around for thousands of years, the industry has developed only over the past few centuries. The beverage products industry, viewed as an aggregate group, is highly fragmented. This is evident by the number of manufacturers, methods of packaging, production processes and final products. The soft drink industry is the exception to the rule, as it is quite concentrated.
The process of production of juices and concentrates in a nutshell!
Whey, the liquid residue of cheese, casein and yoghurt production, is one of the biggest reservoirs of food protein available today. World whey output at approximately million tonnes in contains some 1. The latest research shows that whey protein is arguably the most nutritionally valuable protein available; little wonder that nutritional markets such as sports, clinical and infant nutrition are driving an unprecedented investment level in dairy production. Whey as a by-product from the manufacture of hard, semi-hard or soft cheese and rennet casein is known as sweet whey and has a pH of 5. Manufacture of mineral-acid precipitated casein yields acid whey with a pH of 4.
We use natural ingredients combined with our proprietary technologies to preserve the aromas, flavours and colours of the fruits. Our high quality is achieved through meticulous selection of raw materials, state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities and the knowledge and experience of our long-serving employees. We are always looking for new ways of perfecting our raw materials sourcing, optimising processes, and continuing to improve our extensive range of products on your behalf. We process juices from berries, citrus and tropical fruits into customer-specific juice concentrates, exclusive freeze concentrates, premium puree concentrates and versatile pulp concentrates according to your end-product needs. Furthermore we produce high quality fruit powders, nutritional polyphenol extracts and natural food colours. We also create infusions from leaves, roots, flowers, seeds and herbs. Our juice concentrates, produced using thermal concentration to reduce the water content from fresh or frozen fruit, are primarily used in the beverage industry for making fruit juice drinks, nectars, soft drinks or alcoholic drinks. Other possible applications include ice cream manufacturers and the confectionery, dairy and baked goods industries.
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Water Your Way. Elkay's intuitive Smartwell beverage system brings flavor and fun to offices, boutiques, and businesses, the eco way. Product Resources.
Regret for the inconvenience: we are taking measures to prevent fraudulent form submissions by extractors and page crawlers. Received: July 22, Published: September 15, Using of citrus by-products in farm animals feeding. Open Access J Sci. DOI: Download PDF. Conventional feedstuffs are often expensive and therefore the utilization of agro-industrial by-products as feedstuffs may be economically worthwhile. Ruminant feeding systems based on locally available by-product feedstuffs BPF are often a practical alternative because the rumen microbial ecosystem can utilize BPF which often contain high levels of structural fiber to meet their nutrient requirements for maintenance, growth, reproduction and production. Citrus by-product includes numerous BPF which varies according to the originating crop and method of production that is an important component of ruminant feeding systems in many areas of the world.
The high speed nail making machine is used to produce common nail for the building industry. There are the most popular five different models from No Contact Points. No Moving Parts to wear out. No Sparks.
Industrial wastewater treatment describes the processes used for treating wastewater that is produced by industries as an undesirable by-product. After treatment, the treated industrial wastewater or effluent may be reused or released to a sanitary sewer or to a surface water in the environment. Most industries produce some wastewater. Recent trends have been to minimize such production or to recycle treated wastewater within the production process. Battery manufacturers specialize in fabricating small devices for electronics and portable equipment e. The specific pollutants discharged by organic chemical manufacturers vary widely from plant to plant, depending on the types of products manufactured, such as bulk organic chemicals, resins, pesticides, plastics, or synthetic fibers. Some of the organic compounds that may be discharged are benzene , chloroform , napthalene , phenols , toluene and vinyl chloride. Biochemical oxygen demand BOD , which is a gross measurement of a range of organic pollutants, may be used to gauge the effectiveness of a biological wastewater treatment system, and is used as a regulatory parameter in some discharge permits. Metal pollutant discharges may include chromium , copper , lead , nickel and zinc. Fossil-fuel power stations , particularly coal -fired plants, are a major source of industrial wastewater.
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Niir Project Consultancy Services , 1 thg 7, - trang. Baking is a food cooking method that uses prolonged dry heat by convection, rather than by thermal radiation. Heat is gradually transferred "from the surface of cakes, cookies and breads to their centre.
US Process for the production of a mineral fortified protein composition. EPA2 Fruit juice containing diet beverage. CNA Method for making quick-dissolving drink powders based on starch.
Однако данные о людях заставляют не без оснований предполагать, что этот вид будет продолжать сопротивление, пока не погибнут все особи. Подобный исход погубит по крайней мере одно из двух сообществ космоплавателей, оставшихся на корабле, и чтобы предотвратить его, рекомендуется перейти ко второй стадии умиротворения.