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Units commercial canned vegetables

Units commercial canned vegetables

The canning process dates back to the late 18th century in France when the Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, concerned about keeping his armies fed, offered a cash prize to whomever could develop a reliable method of food preservation. Nicholas Appert conceived the idea of preserving food in bottles, like wine. After 15 years of experimentation, he realized if food is sufficiently heated and sealed in an airtight container, it will not spoil. No preservatives are necessary.

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Content:

1. CANNING PRINCIPLES

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For additional information, contact Steven Simpson. The incidence of spoilage in canned foods is low, but when it occurs it must be investigated properly. Swollen cans often indicate a spoiled product. During spoilage, cans may progress from normal to flipper, to springer, to soft swell, to hard swell. However, spoilage is not the only cause of abnormal cans.

Overfilling, buckling, denting, or closing while cool may also be responsible. Microbial spoilage and hydrogen, produced by the interaction of acids in the food product with the metals of the can, are the principal causes of swelling.

High summer temperatures and high altitudes may also increase the degree of swelling. Some microorganisms that grow in canned foods, however, do not produce gas and therefore cause no abnormal appearance of the can; nevertheless, they cause spoilage of the product.

Spoilage is usually caused by growth of microorganisms following leakage or underprocessing. Leakage occurs from can defects, punctures, or rough handling. Contaminated cooling water sometimes leaks to the interior through pinholes or poor seams and introduces bacteria that cause spoilage. A viable mixed microflora of bacterial rods and cocci is indicative of leakage, which may usually be confirmed by can examination. Underprocessing may be caused by undercooking; retort operations that are faulty because of inaccurate or improperly functioning thermometers, gauges, or controls; excessive contamination of the product for which normally adequate processes are insufficient; changes in formulation or handling of the product that result in a more viscous product or tighter packing in the container, with consequent lengthening of the heat penetration time; or, sometimes, accidental bypassing of the retort operation altogether.

When the can contains a spoiled product and no viable microorganisms, spoilage may have occurred before processing or the microorganisms causing the spoilage may have died during storage. Underprocessed and leaking cans are of major concern and both pose potential health hazards. However, before a decision can be made regarding the potential health hazard of a low-acid canned food, certain basic information is necessary. Naturally, if Clostridium botulinum spores, toxin, or both is found, the hazard is obvious.

Intact cans that contain only mesophilic, Gram-positive, sporeforming rods should be considered underprocessed, unless proved otherwise. It must be determined that the can is intact commercially acceptable seams and no microleaks and that other factors that may lead to underprocessing, such as drained weight and product formulation, have been evaluated.

The preferred type of tool for can content examination is a bacteriological can opener consisting of a puncturing device at the end of a metal rod mounted with a sliding triangular blade that is held in place by a set screw. The advantage over other types of openers is that it does no damage to the double seam and therefore will not interfere with subsequent seam examination of the can. The number of cans examined bacteriologically should be large enough to give reliable results. When the cause of spoilage is clear-cut, culturing cans may be adequate, but in some cases it may be necessary to culture cans before the cause of spoilage can be determined.

On special occasions these procedures may not yield all the required information, and additional tests must be devised to collect the necessary data. Unspoiled cans may be examined bacteriologically to determine the presence of viable but dormant organisms. The procedure is the same as that used for spoiled foods except that the number of cans examined and the quantity of material subcultured must be increased.

Media and reagents. Remove labels. With marking pen, transfer subnumbers to side of can to aid in correlating findings with code. Mark labels so that they may be replaced in their original position on the can to help locate defects indicated by stains on label. Separate all cans by code numbers and record size of container, code, product, condition, evidence of leakage, pinholes or rusting, dents, buckling or other abnormality, and all identifying marks on label.

Classify each can according to the descriptive terms in Table 1. Before observing cans for classification, make sure cans are at room temperature. Classification of cans. NOTE : Cans must be at room temperature for classification. Swollen cans. Immediately analyze springers, swells, and a representative number at least 6, if available of flat and flipper cans.

Retain examples of each, if available, when reserve portion must be held. Examine at frequent intervals for 14 days. When abnormal can or one becoming increasingly swollen is found, make note of it.

When can becomes a hard swell or when swelling no longer progresses, culture sampled contents, examine for preformed toxin of C. Hard swells, soft swells, and springers. Chill hard swells in refrigerator before opening.

Scrub entire uncoded end and adjacent sides of can using abrasive cleanser, cold water, and a brush, steel wool, or abrasive pad. Rinse and dry with clean sterile towel. Badly swollen cans may spray out a portion of the contents, which may be toxic. Take some precaution to guard against this hazard, e. Sterilize can opener by flaming until it is almost red, or use separate presterilized can openers, one for each can.

At the time a swollen can is punctured, test for headspace gas, using a qualitative test or the gas-liquid chromatography method described below. For a qualitative test, hold mouth of sterile test tube at puncture site to capture some escaping gas, or use can-puncturing press to capture some escaping gas in a syringe.

Flip mouth of tube to flame of Bunsen burner. A slight explosion indicates presence of hydrogen. Immediately turn tube upright and pour in a small amount of lime water. A white precipitate indicates presence of CO 2. Make opening in sterilized end of can large enough to permit removal of sample.

Removal of material for testing. Remove large enough portions from center of can to inoculate required culture media. Use sterile pipets, either regular or wide-mouthed. Transfer solid pieces with sterile spatulas or other sterile devices.

Always use safety devices for pipetting. Use this material for repeat examination if needed and for possible toxicity tests. This is the reserve sample. Unless circumstances dictate otherwise, analyze normal cans submitted with sample organoleptically and physically see 5-b, below , including pH determination and seam teardown and evaluation. Simply and completely describe product appearance, consistency, and odor on worksheet. If analyst is not familiar with decomposition odors of canned food, another analyst, preferably one familiar with decomposition odors, should confirm this organoleptic evaluation.

In describing the product in the can, include such things as low liquid level state how low , evidence of compaction, if apparent, and any other characteristics that do not appear normal. Describe internal and external condition of can, including evidence of leakage, etching, corrosion, etc. Physical examination. Perform net weight determinations on a representative number of cans examined normal and abnormal.

Determine drained weight, vacuum, and headspace on a representative number of normal-appearing and abnormal cans 1. Examine metal container integrity of a representative number of normal cans and all abnormal cans that are not too badly buckled for this purpose see Chapter After culturing and removing reserve sample, test material from cans other than those classified as flat for preformed toxins of C.

Microscopic examination. Prepare direct smears from contents of each can after culturing. Dry, fix, and stain with methylene blue, crystal violet, or Gram stain. If product is oily, add xylene to a warm, fixed film, using a dropper; rinse and stain. If product washes off slide during preparation, examine contents as wet mount or hanging drop, or prepare suspension of test material in drop of chopped liver broth before drying.

Check liver broth before use to be sure no bacteria are present to contribute to the smear. Examine under microscope; record types of bacteria seen and estimate total number per field. Table 4. Incubation of acid broth and malt extract broth used for acid foods pH 4. Check incubated medium for growth at frequent intervals up to maximum time of incubation Table 2. If there is no growth in either medium, report and discard.

At time growth is noted streak 2 plates of liver-veal agar without egg yolk or nutrient agar from each positive tube. Incubate one plate aerobically and one anaerobically, as in schematic diagram Table 3.

Pick representatives of all morphologically different types of colonies into CMM and incubate for appropriate time, i. Dispel oxygen from CMM broths to be used for anaerobes but not from those to be used for aerobes.

After obtaining pure isolates, store cultures to maintain viability. May be characteristic on special growth media, e. If product misses retort completely, rods, cocci,yeast or molds, or any combination of these may be present. Cultures come from intact cans that are free of leaks and have commercially acceptable seams. Can seams of both ends of can must be measured; visual examination alone is not sufficient. Spoilage by thermophilic anaerobes such as C.

Spoilage by C. Always test supernatants of such cultures for botulinal toxin even if no toxin was found in the product itself, since viable botulinal spores in canned foods indicate a potential public health hazard, requiring recall of all cans bearing the same code.

Spoilage by mesophilic organisms such as Bacillus thermoacidurans or B. No definitive conclusions may be drawn from inspection of cultures in broth if the food produced an initial turbidity on inoculation. Presence or absence of growth in this case must be determined by subculturing.

This latest edition continues the tradition for both professionals in the canning industry and students who have benefitted from this collection for over years. It contains extensively revised and expanded coverage, and the three-title set is designed to cover all phases of the canning process, including planning, processing, storage, and quality control.

Shelf life is an important property of any food and is of interest to everyone in the food chain from producer to consumer. The legal requirement for manufacturers of packaged foods to open date mark foods was introduced in Australia in This followed similar moves internationally and the publication of a standard by the Codex Committee on Food Labelling. It was argued by consumer groups that with the rapid changes occurring in food manufacturing, packaging and retailing that consumers could no longer rely on traditional wisdom and habits to dictate how long a food may be stored. Changes to the requirements for date marking of food have occurred since

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Accidental freezing of canned foods will not cause spoilage unless jars become unsealed and recontaminated. However, freezing and thawing may soften food. If jars must be stored where they may freeze, wrap them in newspapers, place them in heavy cartons, and cover with more newspapers and blankets. Do not taste food from a jar with an unsealed lid or food which shows signs of spoilage. You can more easily detect some types of spoilage in jars stored without screw bands. Growth of spoilage bacteria and yeast produces gas which pressurizes the food, swells lids and breaks jar seals. Carefully discard any jar of spoiled food to prevent possible illness to you, your family and pets.

Canned Vegetables

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For additional information, contact Steven Simpson. The incidence of spoilage in canned foods is low, but when it occurs it must be investigated properly. Swollen cans often indicate a spoiled product. During spoilage, cans may progress from normal to flipper, to springer, to soft swell, to hard swell.

The purpose of thermal processing during manufacture of canned fishery products is the destruction of bacteria by application of moist heat. Only having satisfied the safety requirements of protecting consumer health, and the commercial requirements of preventing non-pathogenic spoilage, does the canner set about choosing a thermal process schedule that will optimise the sensory quality of the finished product.

Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food contents are processed and sealed in an airtight container jars like Mason jars , and steel and tin cans. Canning provides a shelf life typically ranging from one to five years, although under specific circumstances it can be much longer. In , samples of canned food from the wreck of the Bertrand , a steamboat that sank in the Missouri River in , were tested by the National Food Processors Association. Although appearance, smell and vitamin content had deteriorated, there was no trace of microbial growth and the year-old food was determined to be still safe to eat. During the first years of the Napoleonic Wars , the French government offered a hefty cash award of 12, francs to any inventor who could devise a cheap and effective method of preserving large amounts of food. The larger armies of the period required increased and regular supplies of quality food. Limited food availability was among the factors limiting military campaigns to the summer and autumn months. In , Nicolas Appert , a French confectioner and brewer, observed that food cooked inside a jar did not spoil unless the seals leaked, and developed a method of sealing food in glass jars. The French Army began experimenting with issuing canned foods to its soldiers, but the slow process of canning foods and the even slower development and transport stages prevented the army from shipping large amounts across the French Empire , and the war ended before the process was perfected.

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Net Quantity

Account Options Sign in. Catherine F. Agricultural Research Service, U. Department of Agriculture , - pages. Selected pages Title Page. Table of Contents. Contents Appendix B Notes on weight and volume relationships Appendix CNotes on foods Literature cited Agriculture Handbook, Issue Donald E.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Account Options Sign in. Commercial Standards Monthly , Volume 9. United States. National Bureau of Standards. Selected pages Index. Contents Section 1. Section 2. Section 3. Section 4.

The principal display panel of consumer prepackaged definition products must include a net quantity declaration [, Safe Food for Canadians Regulations SFCR ]. For information on units of measurement, refer to Manner of Declaring. There are also specific requirements for the net quantity declaration on certain prepackaged food products other than consumer prepackaged [, SFCR].

The canning process dates back to the late 18th century in France when the Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, concerned about keeping his armies fed, offered a cash prize to whomever could develop a reliable method of food preservation. Nicholas Appert conceived the idea of preserving food in bottles, like wine. After 15 years of experimentation, he realized if food is sufficiently heated and sealed in an airtight container, it will not spoil. No preservatives are necessary.

Account Options Sign in. Experiment Station Record , Volume

Canning , method of preserving food from spoilage by storing it in containers that are hermetically sealed and then sterilized by heat. The process was invented after prolonged research by Nicolas Appert of France in , in response to a call by his government for a means of preserving food for army and navy use.

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