According to the U. Indeed, lumber calculations can be vexing--even for veteran woodworkers. Fortunately, timber websites tcwoods. While prices in the state or region reflect the typical rate, local market conditions are more consequential. Case in point: if your timber grows near several mills, it may command a higher price than if it were located further away from those mills.
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Environmental Systems Research. December , Cite as. Wood is a versatile raw material and the only renewable construction material. The manufacture of wood products and structures consumes little energy in comparison to similar products and structures made of other materials. Unlike other materials, most of the energy needed to manufacture wood products is derived from renewable energy sources. The global timber sector currently faces the dual challenges of meeting the growing demand of quality timber products and minimising possible adverse impacts on the environment and human health.
Major sources of environmental impacts occur throughout the wood supply chain from sawmills to final products. The major objective of this paper is to explore ways to reduce the environmental impacts of timber products, from sawmills to final products. The specific objectives include the identification of major sources and mechanisms of environmental impacts from timber products, the assessment of the status of energy consumption and GHG emission in wood products during timber processing and manufacturing as well as identifying the potential ways to minimize these environmental impacts.
Amidst growing environmental consciousness and increasing demand for timber products, the importance of fulfilling growing demand for these products on the one hand, and at the same minimizing environmental impacts, is increasingly recognized. Hence, enhanced insight is required into ways of improving the efficiency of timber production process, reducing wood wastage and helping the timber sector to address growing environmental challenges Eshun et al.
Flow chart of activities in timber production stages and production of wastage in timber production sector. It represents the typical timber product production system, from harvesting to the final products through two subsystems viz the forestry and timber industry subsystems, within the timber production sector.
Modified from Eshun et al. It shows two subsystems, the forestry and timber industry, within the timber production sector. The specific objectives include the identification of major sources and mechanisms of environmental impacts from timber products, the assessment of the current status of energy consumption and GHG emission in wood products during timber processing as well as identifying the potential ways to minimize these environmental impacts during the timber production process.
Main sources of environmental impacts of timber products can be categorised into physical impacts of timber processing, energy use and production of GHG emissions. The production process for timber products, from log extraction to final products involves several stages, which can affect the surrounding environments in the form of land, air and water pollution.
The sawmilling process involves debarking and cutting of logs into sections, which are sawn into timber boards. Particulate environmental matter arises from log debarking, sawing into boards, wood residues and kiln drying as these processing stages create environmental hazards on the land.
Similarly, heavy machinery is involved throughout the process with the impacts on land, water, and air quality. For example, sawmilling sector is the backbone of the wood based industry in Malaysia.
A study by Ramasamy et al. Timber processing and manufacturing involves different types of machines and processes such as sawing, drying, machining, jointing, gluing and finishing and so on, which can be connected to both environmental hazards, and workers occupational health and safety. The major hazards with the machines could be classified into mechanical e.
Furthermore, as workers have to use machinery in all phases of its lifecycle from installation, through operation, maintenance, troubleshooting, repairs, adjustments, set-up, production disruptions, to cleaning and dismantling, they get exposed to various hazards Poisson and Chinniah ; Rus et al.
A study based on sixty-six Australian manufacturing firms which produce and supply machinery into local and international markets found that less than one in ten firms comprehensively recognized hazards, used safe place controls as the primary risk control measures, and provided substantial, good quality information to minimize environmental hazards, but the remaining firms did not consider the environmental impacts Bluff Preventing wood waste to improve the efficiency of primary wood utilization significantly helps to reduce the environmental impacts on the one hand, and fulfill timber product demands without further damage to world forest resources on the other.
Wood wastes comprise a significant portion of waste materials. For instance, in Germany, million tonnes of wastes was produced in , out of which waste wood accounts to Sommerhuber et al. Similarly, around 1,, tonnes of wood waste was being generated in Australia per annum until Taylor and Warnken This large amount of wasted wood is often used in the steam production boiler for drying wood products, or is dumped in a site Eshun et al.
These practices contribute to environmental impacts through wood waste and at the same time lead to depletion of timber resources. Eshun et al. Major sources of wood waste were low quality logs with large defects, bark, off-cuts, sawdust, slabs, and edged trimmings from sawn timber.
There are new technologies for the utilization of low quality logs which can significantly reduce the wood wastage as well as specialized equipment which enables to maximize the wood recovery. However, in many enterprises, particularly in developing countries, these new production methods have not yet been used. Therefore, the major causes of wood wastage can be broadly classified into technology-based factors such as the use of obsolete equipment and inefficient procedures and production methods, management-based operational practices, and administrative and institutional issues.
Different types of chemicals are used in the process of timber production, especially in preservative treatment, adhesive application and coating of final products. Though these chemicals have played the positive role of increasing the life span of timber products, they can also contribute to environmental impacts through the toxic elements they contain. For example, disposal of timber from demolition building sites still retaining high levels of preservatives is also another important environmental concern.
Many countries have introduced policies, which prevent the use of toxic chemicals. Even though adhesives are important materials made up of both natural and synthetic substances for bonding wood components into wood product they still might have some negative environmental impacts Yang and Rosentrater However, even the completely cured adhesives regarded as non-toxic and safe, can produce hazardous materials for both humans and the environment Yang and Rosentrater For example, some curing agents such as aliphatic amines, and cycloaliphatic amines might cause irritation or damage to the skin, eyes, lungs, and liver Yang and Rosentrater Therefore, there is growing interest in the use of adhesives which are environmentally benign McDevitt and Grigsby Wood coatings protect wood from environmental influences such as moisture radiation, mechanical and chemical damage, and biological deterioration.
However, they contain liquid made up of either organic solvent or water, and have potential to emit volatile organic compounds VOC. VOC such as those containing chlorofluorocarbon are considered a major environmental problem from both air pollution and human health and safety perspectives de Meijer Environmental impacts associated with the transportation of timber from forest to sawmills, then sawn timber from sawmills to manufacturing companies, and finally to end-users, consume significant amounts of fossil fuel, and thereby emit greenhouse gas GHG to the environment.
A study carried out in Swedish wood supply chain showed that transportation of timber from forests to industrial sites consumes more fossil fuels than any other part of the chain Lindholm and Berg The energy used during the transportation system has impacts on the environment due to release of emission with likely effects on global warming, acidification and eutrophication.
For example, organic compounds and phosphorus released to water, and emissions of nitrogenous compounds to both air and water, are the most serious environmental impacts. Similarly, road transport of timber account for almost half of the total GHG emissions. In East Norway, GHG emissions from the final felling, extraction and transport of timber, was found to have As a result, transportation creates impacts on the atmosphere, land and water resources, and noise pollution.
Study by Timmermann and Dibdiakova assessed annual greenhouse gas effects from seedling, tree felling, transportation and processing of timber products. The study concluded that GHG emissions of forestry supply chain activities and found road transport of timber had the highest impact in climate change category. Maintenance of timber products is carried out either in the form of their full or partial replacement, or by using chemicals to maintain or prolong their life.
Therefore, proper care must be taken while maintaining timber products to produce minimum impact on the environment. Disposal of timber products creates various environmental impacts especially in urban area.
Commercial and industrial wastes, construction and demolition activities, pallets and packaging; and utilities are the main sources of urban wood wastes Taylor and Warnken When the products are disposed instead of being reused, recycled and refurbished they will create the outside pollution and GHG emissions in many ways due to transport from the source to a landfill site; disposal of synthetic materials contributes to toxic waste, which can leach from landfill, and finally, such materials take up a large amount of space in landfill sites and create the need for new waste disposal sites ERDC Although huge volume of waste wood is disposed of to landfill sites in major cities around the world, data on wood waste from the larger categories of waste is not differentiated in most cases.
Data on wood waste from Landfills in Sydney and Melbourne, Australia, estimate that approximately , and , tonnes are annually disposed of respectively Taylor et al. The figure of Melbourne city wood waste disposal is enough to fill the Melbourne Cricket Ground 1.
Similarly, if disposal is carried out by burning of used products, it also produces smokes, contamination and emissions into the environment. For instances, solid contamination has disposal issues by reducing the efficiency of burning and producing waste, whereas excess chlorine in the burning also reduces the burning efficiency and can contribute to the production of dioxins Taylor et al.
The energy involved in the process and stored in the product is called embodied energy Ibn-Mohammed et al. Various types of energy source are used for different stages of timber production. Primarily energy is used for processing and materials handling, drying of raw materials, and associated utilities and services such as boiler steam, and condensation system, heating and lightning of premises Bergman and Bowe As a result, there would be two phenomena involved together, energy consumption during the production process, and emission of greenhouse gas and other gasses as a consequence.
The major sources of energy in sawmilling are either electrical energy or thermal energy. Electrical energy includes electricity supplied through the grid system, and is primarily used in sawing process, whereas thermal or heat energy is generated through biomass and used primarily for drying of sawn timber. Energy sources can also be classified based on the origin of the energy Bergman and Bowe For example, if the energy is produced within the sawmill site, and used for drying or other purposes, it is called an onsite energy source.
On the other hand, if energy requirements are fulfilled from outside of the sawmill site, they are referred as offsite energy sources. On the other hand, sources of energy can also be classified based on the sources of carbon emission as the part of sawmilling procedures.
For example, the energy produced as a result of the burning of wood biomass is called a biogenic energy, whereas energy derived from fossil fuel is called as the anthropogenic emission source Gunn et al. Sources of energy from fossil fuel have a significant impact on the environment and are non-renewable. If the sources of energy are renewable and have less impact on the environment such as hydroelectricity, wind energy, are known as renewable sources of energy.
These have a lower environmental impacts and health hazards. The energy sources and the ways they are used contribute to the production of GHG emissions and other environmental impacts. Major environmental impacts associated with timber products include emission to air especially emission of GHG among others Wilnhammer et al.
This kind of impact is called as carbon foot printing or the carbon impact of timber products Box 1. Manufacturing carbon : Manufacturing uses energy and most energy production results in carbon dioxide release. Bio - fuel : Wood residues are often burned for energy during the manufacture of wood products. Carbon storage : Carbon dioxide is absorbed from the atmosphere during photosynthesis by the growing tree. This carbon is converted to wood, bark and other parts of the tree. Substitution : There are alternatives to wood products for most applications.
However, almost all of these non-wood alternatives require more energy for their manufacture, and the energy used is almost entirely fossil carbon. In fact, these effects together are almost always greater than the manufacturing carbon A , so the overall carbon effect of using wood products is a negative carbon footprint i.
Thus using wood products can help us to reduce contributions to climate change and conserve energy resources. The forest industry especially the timber production process contributes to global GHG emission in different ways from harvesting to end use and disposal. This is mainly due to the fuel combustion at the manufacturing facilities.
Similarly, a significant amount of emission of about million tonnes, also occurs at the end of the life cycle, especially from methane emission million tonnes and emission associated with the burning of used products 3 million tonnes Miner A study on life cycle impacts and benefits of wood along the value chain in Switzerland shows that high environmental benefits in construction and furniture are often achieved when replacing conventional heat production and energy-consuming materials.
For instance, replacement of fossil fuels for energy or energy-intensive building materials, and taking appropriate measures to minimize negative effects such as particulate matter emissions could ensure high environmental benefits Suter et al.
The effects in the US South, in particular, have created a market situation with both advantages and disadvantages for various stakeholders in the supply chain. The mills that survived invested in new technology that improved efficiency and lowered costs. At the same time, as demand dwindled and log prices collapsed, landowners simply chose not to sell timber, opting instead to wait out the down cycle. A strange thing happened as a result of this confluence. As landowners waited for a recovery, trees grew larger and larger and mills—owing to their new-found efficiency—simply used fewer trees. The net result after 10 years: Southern forests have more and larger trees, and sawtimber prices in the region are virtually unchanged since There are signs that things are beginning to change, however.
Lumber and Wood Industries
However, trade restrictions are a growing challenge for the sector. For the first time in a decade, all three subregions showed growth in both production and consumption of sawn softwood. The improving economy, in particular related to construction and renovation, has played a strong role in this growth, but there is also increased momentum behind replacing carbon-intensive building materials with wood as a greener choice for building material, and using wood as a low-carbon source of energy. One of the major barriers to growth is the increasing level of restrictions on trade. As a recent example, a number of traditional log suppliers have imposed export restrictions designed to develop their domestic industry. The most visible trade issue in the area of wood products is the US-Canada softwood lumber agreement, which expired in and is the object of intense negotiations. One of the main elements of the allegations by the US Department of Commerce, and a basis for applied subsidy rates, is the issuance of log export restrictions on government-owned forestlands across Canada and, notably, on private lands in British Columbia which is the leading sawn softwood-exporting province in Canada.
Environmental Systems Research. December , Cite as. Wood is a versatile raw material and the only renewable construction material. The manufacture of wood products and structures consumes little energy in comparison to similar products and structures made of other materials. Unlike other materials, most of the energy needed to manufacture wood products is derived from renewable energy sources. The global timber sector currently faces the dual challenges of meeting the growing demand of quality timber products and minimising possible adverse impacts on the environment and human health. Major sources of environmental impacts occur throughout the wood supply chain from sawmills to final products.
This article is part of a set of statistical articles that the Eurostat online publication "Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics" is based on. It presents statistics on production and trade in wood products in the European Union EU. Apart from the forests' ecological value, their role as an essential landscape element in the EU and their importance for some non-economic uses, such as recreation, forests are also an economic resource.
The Colorado Forest Products CFP database contains Colorado companies that produce products made with at least 50 percent wood derived from Colorado forests as a result of forest management activities. Wood to Energy Program. Forest Business Loan Fund. Forest Products Database. Animal Bedding. Blue Stain. Exterior Buildings. Landscape Ties. Posts, Poles, Fencing. Specialty Products.
Inventory analysis of the timber industry in Ghana
Account Options Login. Foreign Commerce Weekly , Volume 3. Halaman terpilih Halaman Halaman Boston Mass Customhouse. Foreign Commerce Weekly Tampilan utuh - Foreign Commerce Weekly, Volume 9 Tampilan utuh - Istilah dan frasa umum according activity additional agreement agricultural American amounted apply approximately authorities average bags Bank Brazil British Bureau Canada cars cents chemicals China coffee Commerce commodities compared considerable continued cost cotton countries crop December decline demand Department dollar domestic duty Economic effective equipment established estimated exchange expected exports February figures Finance foreign France Germany Government imports increased industry interest issued Italy January Japan kilograms leather less license machinery manufacture March materials ment metric tons months Netherlands normal obtained official operation percent period permits pesos placed plant ports pounds present published purchases quantities quarter quota railway recent reported requirements result rice rubber Service shipments shipped showed sources South steel stocks supplies Tariffs tion tobacco tons trade Transport United United Kingdom valued. Informasi bibliografi. Foreign Commerce Weekly , Volume 3 U.
Wood products - production and trade
Not a complete drying process! Lumber is piled in alternating layers separated by narrow sticks to permit air circulation around lumber with minimal stain. Band Sawn — Saw blade tooth markings kerf on face are at right angle to edge of board. Bird Peck — A patch of distorted grain resulting from birds pecking; sometimes containing ingrown bark. Board Foot — A piece of lumber 1 inch thick, 12 inches wide and 1 foot long, or its cubic equivalent. Book Matched — Adjacent veneer sheets are opened like a book, matching the back of one sheet with the face of the next. Opposite slant of grain creates a light and dark effect.
Menominee Tribal Enterprises
White Valley Lumber. A Brief History of Lumbering in Michigan. Cherokee Wood Products, Inc. Stop by one of our stores today for expert guidance, superior customer service and high-quality materials.
Economy Lumber. The harvesting of blue crabs, clams, and oysters are essential in the economic contribution of the Chesapeake Bay. Economy Lumber, Ashley, Pennsylvania.
The movement for sustainable procurement of wood and paper-based products is driven to a large extent by the concern for how forests are affected by wood production. This concern has two major aspects:. Essential aspects of SFM include the following:. There are various approaches, positions, standards, and definitions of what SFM means and what specific management measures it requires.
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