As the primary engine of growth for the nation? With a mature tourism infrastructure supporting approximately 1. Moreover, with recent investments — the Atlantis Phase III, the Baha Mar Development Company in the Cable Beach strip, and any number of projects planned for the Family Islands — the tourism industry is poised for exponential growth and development, creating an untold range of opportunities not only for jobs within and related to the industry, but for entrepreneurial initiatives that will help create sustainable and lasting economic supports for the industry. Why do visitors choose The Bahamas?
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- About The Industry
- Sports and the Environment: Ways towards achieving the sustainable development of sport
- Promoting the Participation of People with Disabilities in Physical Activity and Sport in Ireland
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- Marketing Intangible Products and Product Intangibles
- 1500+ Best Company Vision and Mission Statements [by Industry]
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About The IndustryVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Instant Activity
Many producers do not sell products or services directly to consumers and instead use marketing intermediaries to execute an assortment of necessary functions to get the product to the final user. These intermediaries, such as middlemen wholesalers, retailers, agents, and brokers , distributors, or financial intermediaries, typically enter into longer-term commitments with the producer and make up what is known as the marketing channel, or the channel of distribution.
Manufacturers use raw materials to produce finished products, which in turn may be sent directly to the retailer, or, less often, to the consumer.
However, as a general rule, finished goods flow from the manufacturer to one or more wholesalers before they reach the retailer and, finally, the consumer.
Each party in the distribution channel usually acquires legal possession of goods during their physical transfer, but this is not always the case. For instance, in consignment selling, the producer retains full legal ownership even though the goods may be in the hands of the wholesaler or retailer—that is, until the merchandise reaches the final user or consumer. Channels of distribution tend to be more direct—that is, shorter and simpler—in the less industrialized nations.
There are notable exceptions, however. For instance, the Ghana Cocoa Marketing Board collects cacao beans in Ghana and licenses trading firms to process the commodity. Similar marketing processes are used in other West African nations. Because of the vast number of small-scale producers, these agents operate through middlemen who, in turn, enlist sub-buyers to find runners to transport the products from remote areas. It was possible for a product to pass through a minimum of five separate wholesalers before it reached a retailer.
Businesses may sell products directly to the final customer, as is the case with most industrial capital goods. Or they may use one or more intermediaries to move their goods to the final user. The design and structure of consumer marketing channels and industrial marketing channels can be quite similar or vary widely. The channel design is based on the level of service desired by the target consumer.
The service variables are quantity or lot size the number of units a customer purchases on any given purchase occasion , waiting time the amount of time customers are willing to wait for receipt of goods , proximity or spatial convenience accessibility of the product , product variety the breadth of assortment of the product offering , and service backup add-on services such as delivery or installation provided by the channel.
It is essential for the designer of the marketing channel—typically the manufacturer—to recognize the level of each service point that the target customer desires. A single manufacturer may service several target customer groups through separate channels, and therefore each set of service outputs for these groups could vary.
One group of target customers may want elevated levels of service that is, fast delivery, high product availability, large product assortment, and installation. Their demand for such increased service translates into higher costs for the channel and higher prices for customers. In order to deliver the optimal level of service outputs to their target consumers, manufacturers are willing to allocate some of their tasks, or marketing flows, to intermediaries.
As any marketing channel moves goods from producers to consumers, the marketing intermediaries perform, or participate in, a number of marketing flows, or activities. The typical marketing flows, listed in the usual sequence in which they arise, are collection and distribution of marketing research information information , development and dissemination of persuasive communications promotion , agreement on terms for transfer of ownership or possession negotiation , intentions to buy ordering , acquisition and allocation of funds financing , assumption of risks risk taking , storage and movement of product physical possession , buyers paying sellers payment , and transfer of ownership title.
Each of these flows must be performed by a marketing intermediary for any channel to deliver the goods to the final consumer. Thus, each producer must decide who will perform which of these functions in order to deliver the service output levels that the target consumers desire. Producers delegate these flows for a variety of reasons.
First, they may lack the financial resources to carry out the intermediary activities themselves. Second, many producers can earn a superior return on their capital by investing profits back into their core business rather than into the distribution of their products. Finally, intermediaries, or middlemen, offer superior efficiency in making goods and services widely available and accessible to final users.
For instance, in overseas markets it may be difficult for an exporter to establish contact with end users, and various kinds of agents must therefore be employed. Because an intermediary typically focuses on only a small handful of specialized tasks within the marketing channel, each intermediary, through specialization, experience, or scale of operation, can offer a producer greater distribution benefits.
Although middlemen can offer greater distribution economy to producers, gaining cooperation from these middlemen can be problematic. Middlemen must continuously be motivated and stimulated to perform at the highest level.
In order to gain such a high level of performance, manufacturers need some sort of leverage. Researchers have distinguished five bases of power: coercive threats if the middlemen do not comply , reward extra benefits for compliance , legitimate power by position—rank or contract , expert special knowledge , and referent manufacturer is highly respected by the middlemen. As new institutions emerge or products enter different life-cycle phases, distribution channels change and evolve.
With these types of changes, no matter how well the channel is designed and managed, conflict is inevitable. Often this conflict develops because the interests of the independent businesses do not coincide. For example, franchisers, because they receive a percentage of sales, typically want their franchisees to maximize sales, while the franchisees want to maximize their profits, not sales. The conflict that arises may be vertical, horizontal, or multichannel in nature. When the Ford Motor Company comes into conflict with its dealers, this is a vertical channel conflict.
Horizontal channel conflict arises when a franchisee in a neighbouring town feels a fellow franchisee has infringed on its territory. Finally, multichannel conflict occurs when a manufacturer has established two or more channels that compete against each other in selling to the same market.
For example, a major tire manufacturer may begin selling its tires through mass merchandisers, much to the dismay of its independent tire dealers. Wholesaling includes all activities required to sell goods or services to other firms, either for resale or for business use, usually in bulk quantities and at lower-than-retail prices.
Wholesalers, also called distributors, are independent merchants operating any number of wholesale establishments.
Merchant wholesalers, also known as jobbers, distributors, or supply houses, are independently owned and operated organizations that acquire title ownership of the goods that they handle. There are two types of merchant wholesalers: full-service and limited-service. Full-service wholesalers usually handle larger sales volumes; they may perform a broad range of services for their customers, such as stocking inventories, operating warehouses, supplying credit , employing salespeople to assist customers, and delivering goods to customers.
General-line wholesalers carry a wide variety of merchandise, such as groceries; specialty wholesalers, on the other hand, deal with a narrow line of goods, such as coffee and tea or seafood. Limited-service wholesalers, who offer fewer services to their customers and suppliers, emerged in order to reduce the costs of service.
There are several types of limited-service wholesalers. Cash-and-carry wholesalers usually handle a limited line of fast-moving merchandise, selling to smaller retailers on a cash-only basis and not delivering goods. Truck wholesalers or jobbers sell and deliver directly from their vehicles, often for cash. They carry a limited line of semiperishables such as milk, bread, and snack foods.
Drop shippers do not carry inventory or handle the merchandise. Operating primarily in bulk industries such as lumber, coal, and heavy equipment, they take orders but have manufacturers ship merchandise directly to final consumers. Rack jobbers, who handle nonfood lines such as housewares or personal goods, primarily serve drug and grocery retailers. Rack jobbers typically perform such functions as delivery, shelving, inventory stacking, and financing.
In less-developed countries , wholesalers are often the sole or primary means of trade; they are the main elements in the distribution systems of many countries in Latin America , East Asia, and Africa. In such countries the business activities of wholesalers may expand to include manufacturing and retailing , or they may branch out into nondistributive ventures such as real estate, finance , or transportation.
Until the late s, Japan was dominated by wholesaling. Even relatively large manufacturers and retailers relied principally on wholesalers as their intermediaries.
However, in the late 20th century, Japanese wholesalers declined in importance. Even in the most highly industrialized countries, however, wholesalers remain essential to the operations of significant numbers of small retailers. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Load Previous Page. Marketing intermediaries: the distribution channel Many producers do not sell products or services directly to consumers and instead use marketing intermediaries to execute an assortment of necessary functions to get the product to the final user.
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Many producers do not sell products or services directly to consumers and instead use marketing intermediaries to execute an assortment of necessary functions to get the product to the final user. These intermediaries, such as middlemen wholesalers, retailers, agents, and brokers , distributors, or financial intermediaries, typically enter into longer-term commitments with the producer and make up what is known as the marketing channel, or the channel of distribution. Manufacturers use raw materials to produce finished products, which in turn may be sent directly to the retailer, or, less often, to the consumer. However, as a general rule, finished goods flow from the manufacturer to one or more wholesalers before they reach the retailer and, finally, the consumer.
Sports and the Environment: Ways towards achieving the sustainable development of sport
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Promoting the Participation of People with Disabilities in Physical Activity and Sport in Ireland
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The increasingly global and technology sophisticated business world provides a wide variety of rewarding business careers. Every company in every industry needs business professionals to operate efficiently. Do you enjoy working with people? Being creative? Managing money? Our huge list includes rewarding business jobs for just about everyone seeking a job in the business world. Account executive: They put charisma to work. Account executives are responsible for creating new clients and maintaining happy client relationships. He knows how to soothe clients' concerns with a well-timed returned call and knows just who to go to if the answers are not immediately available.
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Distinguishing between companies according to whether they market services or goods has only limited utility. A more useful way to make the same distinction is to change the words we use. Instead of speaking of services and goods, we should speak of intangibles and tangibles.
Operations management for services has the functional responsibility for producing the services of an organization and providing them directly to its customers. These decisions concern the process, people, information and the system that produces and delivers the service. It differs from operations management in general, since the processes of service organizations differ from those of manufacturing organizations. In a post-industrial economy , service firms provide most of the GDP and employment. As a result, management of service operations within these service firms is essential for the economy. The services sector treats services as intangible products, service as a customer experience and service as a package of facilitating goods and services. Significant aspects of service as a product are a basis for guiding decisions made by service operations managers. There have been many different definitions of service. It can be added after manufacturing e.
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Chapter This course is recommended for students in Grades Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Students learn knowledge and skills focusing on communication, time management, and customer service that meet industry standards. Students will explore the history of the hospitality and tourism industry and examine characteristics needed for success in that industry. The student is expected to:. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9 and Recommended prerequisite: Principles of Hospitality and Tourism.
Marketing Intangible Products and Product Intangibles
This page was archived due to the coming into force of the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations. Archived information is provided for reference, research or record-keeping purposes only. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. For current information visit Food. Food safety is a collective responsibility of government, industry and consumers. All food operators are responsible under Canadian law for the safety of the food they produce and distribute. The Guide to Food Safety is a voluntary tool that provides the Canadian food industry with generic guidance on how to design, develop and implement effective preventive food safety control systems. This will help to enhance food safety and prevent foodborne illness, foodborne injury and food spoilage. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency CFIA recognizes that various food safety programs and codes of practice have been implemented by the provinces and federally registered sectors, such as meat and fish processing sectors. The Guide to Food Safety is not designed or intended to supersede or replace any existing requirements of federal, provincial and territorial governments.
1500+ Best Company Vision and Mission Statements [by Industry]
Today, in many countries Sport and the Environment is understood as a highly important subject. Scientists deal with this issue as well as authorities, sports associations and conservation groups. Above all, since the World Conference in Rio de Janeiro questions of lifestyle are on the agenda for the environmental debate. Sport represents a significant part of our different lifestyles and thus automatically becomes a subject of discussion.
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Defining recreation as it pertains to tourism, however, is more challenging. This term is typically applied to outdoor activities that individuals engage in and that are located close to their community.