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Storage product cinema, photo and magnetic materials

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Caring for photographs

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When the renowned cinematographer Emmanuel Lubezki began planning to shoot the wilderness drama The Revenant , he decided that to capture the stark, frozen beauty of a Canadian winter, he would use no artificial light , instead relying on sunlight, moonlight, and fire. He also planned to use traditional film cameras for most of the shooting, reserving digital cameras for low-light scenes. The digital footage, by contrast, had no noise or graininess, and the equipment held up much better in the extreme cold.

The crew soon switched over to digital cameras exclusively. The film, released in December , earned him an Academy Award for cinematography two months later. Back then, digital moviemaking was virtually unheard of; according to the producer and popular film blogger Stephen Follows, none of the top-grossing U. These days, nearly all of the films from all of the major studios are shot and edited digitally. Like Lubezki, filmmakers have switched to digital because it allows a far greater range of special effects, filming conditions, and editing techniques.

Directors no longer have to wait for film stock to be chemically processed in order to view it, and digital can substantially bring down costs compared with traditional film.

Distribution of films is likewise entirely digital, feeding not only the digital cinema projectors in movie theaters but also the streaming video services run by the likes of Netflix and Hulu. Digital technology has also radically altered the way that movies are preserved for posterity, but here the effect has been far less salutary. These days, the major studios and film archives largely rely on a magnetic tape storage technology known as LTO, or linear tape-open , to preserve motion pictures.

When the format first emerged in the late s, it seemed like a great solution. The first generation of cartridges held an impressive gigabytes of uncompressed data; the latest, LTO-7, can hold 6 terabytes uncompressed and 15 TB compressed.

The problem with LTO is obsolescence. LTO manufacturers guarantee at most two generations of backward compatibility. What that means for film archivists with perhaps tens of thousands of LTO tapes on hand is that every few years they must invest millions of dollars in the latest format of tapes and drives and then migrate all the data on their older tapes—or risk losing access to the information altogether.

And the habit is expensive. To understand how the movie studios and archives got into this predicament, it helps to know a little about what came before LTO.

Up until the early s, filmmakers shot on nitrate film stock, which turned out to be not just unstable but highly flammable. Over the years, entire studio collections went up in flames, sometimes accidentally and sometimes on purpose, to avoid the costs of storage. According to the Film Foundation , a nonprofit founded by director Martin Scorsese to restore and preserve important films, about half of the U.

And so they did. The proliferation of television around the same time created a new market for film. Soon the studios came to view their archives not as an afterthought or a luxury but as a lucrative investment—and as an essential part of our collective cultural heritage, of course.

Remarkably, the industry still uses film archiving, even for works that are born digital. A master copy of the finished piece will be rendered as yellow-cyan-magenta separations on black-and-white film and then preserved as traditional celluloid, on polyester film stock. Put the film on the shelf, and it will play in a hundred years. One big problem with this approach is that to preserve the work, you must disturb it as little as possible.

Dust, fingerprints, and scratches will obviously compromise the integrity of the film. Archive staff periodically check the stored masters for signs of degradation; occasionally, a master will be used to make a duplicate for public release, such as a showing at a repertory cinema or film festival.

But otherwise, the archive remains pristine and off-limits. And as chemical film stock becomes obsolete, along with the techniques used to create and manipulate it, relying on a film-based archive will only grow more difficult and more costly. The movie industry executives I interviewed would argue that the current system for digital archiving is already unsustainable.

Magnetic tape storage for computer data had been around since the s, so it was considered a mature technology. Digital works could be kept in digital format.

Tapes could be easily duplicated, and the data quickly accessed. And manufacturers promised that the cartridges would last for 30 years or more. In an interview, Janet Lafleur, a product manager at Quantum Corp. LTO came to be widely used for data backup in the corporate world, the sciences, and the military. But the frequency of LTO upgrades has film archivists over a barrel. Steven Anastasi , vice president of global media archives and preservation services at Warner Bros.

Before that time elapses, you must migrate to a newer generation of LTO because, of course, it takes time to move the data from one format to the next. While LTO data capacities have been steadily doubling, tape speeds have not kept up. Then you need technicians to operate and troubleshoot the equipment and ensure that the migrated data is error free.

Migrating a petabyte a thousand terabytes of data can take several months, says Anastasi. And how much does it cost to migrate from one LTO format to the next? For a large film archive, data migration costs can easily run into the millions. And archivists are compelled to maintain and service each new generation of LTO drive along with preserving the LTO cartridges.

These days, an estimated 75 percent of the films shown in U. From a preservation standpoint, those digital works might as well be stored on flammable nitrate film. Meanwhile, the motion-picture studios are churning out content at an ever-increasing rate. Meanwhile, the use of higher-resolution digital cameras and 3D cameras has caused the amount of potentially archivable material to skyrocket.

Pixel resolutions have gone from 2K to 4K and soon, 8K, he adds. Computer-animation studios like Pixar have their own archiving issues. Part of the creative process in a feature-length animated film is developing the algorithms and other digital tools to render the images.

Even so, the sheer pace of technological advancement means those digital tools become obsolete quickly, too. The studio by then was no longer using the same animation software system, and it found that certain aspects of the original could not be emulated in its new software. The movement of seagrass, for instance, had been controlled by a random number generator, but there was no way to retrieve the original seed value for that generator. The fact that the studio had lost access to its own film after less than a decade is a sobering commentary on the challenges of archiving computer-generated work.

Another problem for archivists is that digital camera technology has allowed productions to shoot essentially everything. These days, says Warner archive chief Anastasi, films can go as high as to 1.

All that material will typically get saved and stored for a while. But at some point, somebody will have to decide how much of that excess really needs to be preserved for posterity. Given the huge expense of film preservation, archivists are being ruthless about what they choose to store. At Warner, Anastasi has taken a triage approach. We captured that material on digital as uncompressed JPEG files. The USC archive maintains copies of each tape at several locations.

A robotic arm selects a tape from a rack and loads it into a reader, which plays it back while a computer checks for aberrations. Perishable material may include dailies for features or unused footage; it will be stored for some time in the archive but may not be migrated. The manage-or-perish scheme is by no means perfect, Anastasi admits, but he sees it as buying the studio a little time until a truly long-term digital storage technology comes along.

If one ever does. Literally tens of thousands of motion pictures, TV shows, and other works would just quietly cease to exist at some point in the foreseeable future. The cultural loss would be incalculable because these works have significance beyond their aesthetics and entertainment value. They are major markers of the creative life of our time. Most of the archivists I spoke with remain—officially at least—optimistic that a good, sound, post-LTO solution will eventually emerge.

But not everyone shares that view. The most chilling prediction I heard came from a top technician at Technicolor. Marty Perlmutter is based in Southern California and has worked in interactive video and new media for four decades, including early work designing immersive technology hardware, building exhibits, and exploring artistic and commercial uses of image control. About the Author Marty Perlmutter is based in Southern California and has worked in interactive video and new media for four decades, including early work designing immersive technology hardware, building exhibits, and exploring artistic and commercial uses of image control.

California Museum of Photography Main Street Riverside, CA Mailing address: University of California, Riverside, CA FAX Collection: 19thth century photos, stereoview negatives and prints, cameras and equipment; library; exhibits; laboratory; lectures and symposia; tours; educational programs; exploratorium; publications. George Eastman House International Museum of Photography and Film East Avenue Rochester, NY FAX Photographic materials preservation; large diverse collection; exhibits; archive; photographic conservation center; publications; educational programs; symposia. Research Center on the Materials of the Artist and Conservator Mellon Institute Fifth Avenue Pittsburgh, PA FAX Scientific research in conservation of libraries and archives including photographic materials and fine and decorative arts.

As technology progresses many people are digitising their photographic collections. In undertaking this process it is important to take care of your original materials for access in the future. The following guidelines are some simple steps that you can undertake to protect your photographic collection for the long-term. Before discussing storage it is important to keep in mind that most photographic material is made up of several layers.

Holographic Memory

We can guarantee the quality and reliability of consumables for taking photos and films. You can be sure that the most interesting moments of your life will be imprinted and saved for a whole life for stir up warm memories and feelings. Micrat-orto "Svema" 35mm, 70mm perforated and non-perforated Film and photo materials. Professional and amateur photographers and operators usually think about how to impact something interesting and amazing for blowing up imagination while viewing photos or video frames.

The Afterlife Is Expensive for Digital Movies

When the renowned cinematographer Emmanuel Lubezki began planning to shoot the wilderness drama The Revenant , he decided that to capture the stark, frozen beauty of a Canadian winter, he would use no artificial light , instead relying on sunlight, moonlight, and fire. He also planned to use traditional film cameras for most of the shooting, reserving digital cameras for low-light scenes. The digital footage, by contrast, had no noise or graininess, and the equipment held up much better in the extreme cold. The crew soon switched over to digital cameras exclusively. The film, released in December , earned him an Academy Award for cinematography two months later. Back then, digital moviemaking was virtually unheard of; according to the producer and popular film blogger Stephen Follows, none of the top-grossing U. These days, nearly all of the films from all of the major studios are shot and edited digitally.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: movers10.comic material - paramagnetic - diamagnetic - ferromagnetic - Physics class 12
TIME was, a movie studio could pack up a picture and all of its assorted bloopers, alternate takes and other odds and ends as soon as the production staff was done with them, and ship them off to the salt mine.

For most of us, data storage has only gotten easier. With the 3. By , the world is on track to generate zettabytes of data per year. That is more bytes than there are stars in the observable universe. This means discarding data which could be invaluable — in some cases before we necessarily know whether or not it actually is. A current single data center can consume more power than a medium-size town. While companies like Apple have taken steps to offset this by embracing more sustainable energy sources, there are still reasons to seek a better alternative. And once and for all, too. The idea of storing data in DNA sounds positively futuristic.

DNA, laser-etched glass, and beyond: A peek into the future of data storage

This new. By applying this new technology, Fujifilm is planning future product development that could. This figure is ten times larger in capacity than currently achieved for conventional.

This list of online resources can be downloaded as a PDF file. Contents available for members only. SOIMA: Unlocking Sound and Image Heritage is a web-based and freely downloadable book that offers tips and advice from dedicated professionals from all corners of the world, for the preservation and creative use of sound and image heritage.

But in this Denver suburb, a radical experiment in data storage is under way. At the headquarters of InPhase Technologies, where the conference rooms are named after ski resorts, chief executive Nelson Diaz holds up a clear plastic disc, about the size of a DVD but thicker, and pops it into a disc drive. A laptop connected to the drive downloads streaming video of an old episode of Seinfeld as the drive writes it to the disc. But this is no ordinary recording process. The disc has more than 60 times the storage capacity of a standard DVD, while the drive writes about 10 times faster than a conventional DVD burner. That means the disc can store up to hours of video content — almost twice enough for the full nine seasons of Seinfeld — and records it all in less than three hours. Unlike CDs and DVDs, which store data bit by bit on their surfaces, holographic discs store data a page at a time in three dimensions, enabling huge leaps in capacity and access speed. Three-dimensional memory could dramatically change how we use microelectronics. Many of the remarkable advances in consumer electronics over the last few years — and much of the economic health of the industry — are directly traceable to the explosion in storage capacity.

The conservation and restoration of film is the physical care and treatment of film-based materials (plastic supports). These include photographic materials and motion picture. . Roll film with a ferromagnetic coating. Poor storage, such as lack of enclosures, can lead to deterioration through exposure to light and pollution.

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Conservation and restoration of film

John Koski sits down in his swivel chair and assesses the damage. After looking over the tests, he makes a diagnosis: worn-down bearings in the guiding system. Then, he begins his operation, disassembling defective parts and replacing them. The whole procedure takes anywhere from four to eight hours. Koski brings failing machinery back to life. A collection of antique radios and clocks, portable audio cassette players, oscilloscopes, floppy disk readers, vacuum tube radios, and other ancient machinery lie around his workspace—the oldest piece of technology dating back to the s. Many of them have been dubbed irrelevant. The revolving door of new technologies has phased out older generations from popular use. For Koski, now retired at age 71, repairing these devices, such as tape drives, is a crucial cog in the data-preservation clock. The former magnetic tape technologist works as a digital storage contractor who runs a small operation out of his home consulting with companies, and as a hobby restores the hardware that reads electronic files of the past.

Forthcoming Events

See the full changelog here. Cosa riserva il futuro per V-ray for Cinema 4D? V-Ray for Cinema 4D is an industry standard and it is used by many big studios all over the world. V-Ray for Cinema 4D is an industry standard and is used by many major studios around the world.

NANO CUBIC Technology Backgrounder - Fujifilm USA

Fujifilm is helping make the world a better, healthier, and more interesting place. A world leader, FUJINON optical technology and production provide superb lens grinding, electron beam coating, aspherical glass lens fabrication to meet customer requirements. A world leader in developing and manufacturing high-performance aqueous inkjet inks, pigments and dyes, including customer-focus bespoke inks. Industrial printheads that deliver superior ink jetting performance and flexibility for digital textile printing and decorative applications including ceramics and wallpaper.

Vray Next For Cinema 4d

The conservation and restoration of film is the physical care and treatment of film-based materials plastic supports. These include photographic materials and motion picture. Cellulose nitrate circa - circa is the first of film supports. It can be found as roll film, motion picture film, and sheet film.

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