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Jensen, J. Graham and Donald L. Graham, which were revised by Donald L. The term food industries covers a series of industrial activities directed at the processing, conversion, preparation, preservation and packaging of foodstuffs see table The raw materials used are generally of vegetable or animal origin and produced by agriculture, farming, breeding and fishing. This article provides an overview of the complex of food industries.
Other articles in this chapter and Encyclopaedia deal with particular food industry sectors and particular hazards. Many food industries depend almost entirely on local agriculture or fishing. In the past, this meant seasonal production and hiring of seasonal workers. Improvements in food processing and preservation technologies have taken some of the pressure off workers to process food quickly to prevent spoilage. This has resulted in a decrease in seasonal employment fluctuations.
However, certain industries still have seasonal activities, such as fresh fruit and vegetable processing and increases in production of baked goods, chocolate and so forth for holiday seasons.
Seasonal workers are often women and foreign workers. Much of this increase can be attributed to an increased demand for processed food and drink, especially in developing countries where the market has not yet been saturated.
This increase in output of food and drink products, however, has not resulted in increased employment because of intensified competition, which has resulted in decreased employment in many food industries, especially in industrialized countries. This is due to increased productivity and mechanization in many of these industries.
Demographic pressure, uneven distribution of agricultural resources and the need to insure preservation of food products to facilitate their better distribution explain the rapid technical evolution in the food industries. Constant economic and marketing pressures drive the industry to provide new and different products for market, while other operations may make the same product in the same way for decades.
Even highly industrialized facilities often resort to seemingly archaic techniques when starting new products or processes. In practice, to satisfy population requirements, there is a need not only for a sufficient quantity of foodstuffs, which presupposes an increase of production, but also strict control of sanitation to obtain the quality essential to maintain the health of the community.
Only modernization of techniques justified by production volumes in a stable production environment will eliminate manual handling hazards. In spite of the extreme diversity of the food industries, the preparation processes can be divided into handling and storage of raw materials, extraction, processing, preservation and packaging.
Manipulation of the raw materials, the ingredients during processing and the finished products is varied and diverse. Mechanical handling may involve: self-propelled in-plant transport with or without palletization or super or bulk sacks often containing several thousand pounds of dry powder material ; conveyor belts e. Storage of raw materials is most important in a seasonal industry e.
It is usually done in silos, tanks, cellars, bins or cold stores. Storage of the finished products varies according to their nature liquid or solid , the method of preserving and the method of packaging loose, in sack or super sack, in bundles, boxes or bottles ; and the respective premises must be planned to suit the conditions of handling and preserving traffic aisles, ease of access, temperature and humidity suited to product, cold-storage installations.
Commodities may be held in oxygen-deficient atmospheres or under fumigation while in storage or just before shipment. To extract a specific food product from fruit, cereals or liquids, any of the following methods may be used: crushing, pounding or grinding, extraction by heat direct or indirect , extraction by solvents, drying and filtration.
In other cases it may be the actual extraction process, as in flour milling. Heat can be used directly as a means of preparation by extraction, as in roasting e. Oils can be extracted equally well by combining and mixing the crushed fruit with solvents that are later eliminated by filtering and reheating.
The separation of liquid products is carried out by centrifuging turbines in a sugar refinery or by filtering through filter presses in breweries and in oil and fat production. Operations in processing food products are extremely varied and can be described only after individual study of each industry, but the following general procedures are used: fermentation, cooking, dehydration and distillation.
Fermentation, obtained usually by addition of a micro-organism to the previously prepared product, is practiced in bakeries, breweries, the wine and spirits industry and the cheese products industry.
Cooking occurs in many manufacturing operations: canning and preserving of meat, fish, vegetables and fruits; ready-to-serve meat-processing plants e. In other cases, cooking is done in a vacuum-sealed container and produces a concentration of the product e. Besides the drying of products by the sun, as with many tropical fruits, dehydration can be carried out in hot air fixed dryers or drying tunnels , by contact on a drying drum heated by steam, such as in the instant-coffee industry and the tea industry , vacuum drying often combined with filtering and lyophilization freeze drying , where the product is first frozen solid and then dried by vacuum in a heated chamber.
Distillation is used in the making of spirits. The fermented liquid, treated to separate grain or fruit, is vaporized in a still; the condensed vapour is then collected as liquid ethyl alcohol. Briefly, the first three methods destroy microbial life; the latter merely inhibit growth. Raw ingredients such as fish and meat, fruit or vegetables are taken fresh and preserved by one of the above methods, or a mixture of different foods are processed to form a product or dish, which is then preserved.
Such products include soups, meat dishes and puddings. Food preservation goes back to the last Ice Age, about 15, BC, when Cro-Magnon humans discovered for the first time a way of preserving food by smoking it. The evidence for this lies in the caves at Les Eyzies in the Dordogne in France, where this way of life is well portrayed in carvings, engravings and paintings.
From then to the present day, although many methods have been used and still are, heat remains one of the principal cornerstones of food preservation.
High-temperature processes can destroy bacteria, depending on the cooking temperature and duration. Sterilization mainly used in canneries involves submitting the already canned product to the action of steam, generally in a closed container such as an autoclave or continuous cooker. Smoking is carried out mainly on fish, ham and bacon, assuring dehydration and giving a distinctive flavor.
Ionizing radiation sterilization is used heavily on spices in some countries to reduce wastage and spoilage. However, sterilizing canned foods with radiation requires such high dosage that unacceptable flavours and odours result.
Microwave sterilization is another type of electromagnetic emission that is currently finding use in the food industry. It is used for rapidly thawing raw frozen ingredients before further processing, as well as for heating frozen cooked foods in 2 to 3 minutes. Such a method, with its low moisture content loss, preserves the appearance and flavour of the food. Drying is a common preservation process. Sun drying is the oldest and most widely used method of food preservation.
Today foodstuffs may be dried in air, superheated steam, in vacuum, in inert gas and by direct application of heat. Many types of dryers exist, the particular type being dependent on the nature of the material, the desired form of finished product and so on. Dehydration is a process in which heat is transferred into the water in the food, which is vapourized. The water vapour is then removed. Low-temperature processes involve storage in a cold store the temperature determined by the nature of the products , freezing and deep-freezing, which allows foodstuffs to be preserved in their naturally fresh state, by various methods of slow or rapid freezing.
With freeze drying, the material to be dried is frozen and placed in a sealed chamber. The chamber pressure is reduced and maintained at a value below 1 mm Hg. Heat is applied to the material, the surface ice heats up and the resultant water vapour is drawn off by the vacuum system.
As the ice boundary recedes into the material, the ice sublimes in situ and the water percolates to the surface through the pore structure of the material. The technology, which is difficult, is a spin-off from space travel. Open-shelf stability is achieved by suitable control of acidity, redox potential, humectants and preservatives.
Most developments to date have been in foods for pet animals. Whatever the preservation process, the food to be preserved has first to be prepared. Meat preservation involves a butchery department; fish needs cleaning and gutting, filleting, curing and so on. Before fruit and vegetables can be preserved they have to be washed, cleaned, blanched, perhaps graded, peeled, stalked, shelled and stoned. Many of the ingredients have to be chopped, sliced, minced or pressed.
There are many methods of packaging food, including canning, aseptic packaging and frozen packaging. The conventional method of canning is based on the original work of Appert in France, for which in the French government awarded him a prize of 12, francs.
He preserved food in glass containers. In Dartford, England, in , Donkin and Hall set up the first cannery using tinned iron containers. Today the world uses several million tonnes of tinplate annually for the canning industry, and a substantial amount of preserved food is packed into glass jars. The process of canning consists of taking cleaned food, raw or partly cooked but not intentionally sterilized, and packing it into a can that is sealed with a lid.
The can is then heated, usually by steam under pressure, to a certain temperature for a period of time to allow penetration of the heat to the centre of the can, destroying the microbial life. The can is then cooled in air or chlorinated water, after which it is labelled and packed. Changes in processing have occurred over the years. Continuous sterilizers cause less damage to cans by impact and allow cooling and drying in a closed atmosphere.
Foods can also be heat preserved in retortable pouches. These are bags of small cross-sectional area made from laminates of aluminium and heat-sealable plastics. The process is the same as for conventional canning, but better taste properties are claimed for the products because sterilization times can be reduced. Very careful control of the retorting process is essential to avoid damage to the heat seals with subsequent bacterial spoilage. There have been recent developments in the aseptic packaging of food.
The process is fundamentally different from conventional canning. In the aseptic method the food container and closure are sterilized separately, and the filling and closing are done in a sterile atmosphere. Product quality is optimal because heat treatment of the foodstuff can be controlled precisely and is independent of the size or material of the container.
Of concern is employee exposure to the sterilizing agents. It is likely that the method will become more widely used because overall it should result in energy savings. Developments on particulate foodstuffs will follow. One likely benefit in food factories will be the reduction of noise if rigid metallic containers are replaced. Such containers may also cause problems by contaminating preserved food with lead and tin. These are minimized by new-type two-piece containers drawn from lacquered tinplate and three-piece containers with welded instead of soldered side seams.
The frozen food industry utilizes all methods of deep-freezing fresh food at temperatures below their freezing point, thus forming ice crystals in the watery tissues. The food may be frozen raw or partially cooked e. Food for freezing must be in prime condition and prepared under strict hygienic control.
The methodology developed can be used for wastewaters generated by other polluting industries like tanneries. Indian scientists have demonstrated that wastewater from some of the dirtiest industrial processes can be turned into a carbon source for preparation of energy storage materials. Such electrochemical material can be used to make electrodes, sensors and supercapacitors which find applications in digital devices. In a two-step process, spent wash from a distillery was acidified to bring its pH down to about 2. The acidified solution was stirred overnight at room temperature, resulting in precipitation of solid mass or sludge.
Introduction 1. Metahara sugar factory 2. Possible solutions of the stated problems 3. People were arguing that whether sugarcane is native to India or New Guinea. They do agree that ancient people liked it and carried with them in their migration and spread throughout south pacific area. Although sugar cane was possibly known in the holy land in biblical time only syrups could be obtained from it.
Sugar industry waste turned into next-generation battery material
The Government today released a new categorization of industries based on their pollution load. The exercise of Re-categorization was being carried out for last one year. The old system of categorization was creating problems for many industries and was not reflecting the pollution of the industries. The new categories will remove this lacuna and will give clear picture to everyone. The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change MoEFCC has developed the criteria of categorization of industrial sectors based on the Pollution Index which is a function of the emissions air pollutants , effluents water pollutants , hazardous wastes generated and consumption of resources. The Pollution Index PI of any industrial sector is a number from 0 to and the increasing value of PI denotes the increasing degree of pollution load from the industrial sector.
We took a lot of care in creating our packaging. Sugar glass also called candy glass, edible glass, and breakaway glass is a brittle transparent form of sugar that looks like glass. Age statements are beginning to appear on rum bottles, something that has caused quite a stir in an industry where such details have historically been left up to the distiller or blender. Bagasse sugarcane What is bagasse? Bagasse is the name for the residual fibers that remain after the squeezing of sugarcanes at the sugar production. Add to cart. The renewable sugarcane captures CO2 from the atmosphere, helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Sugarcane to Bottle: How Brugal Rum is Made Author's Note: This post was made possible by the folks behind Brugal Rum, who invited me and a handful of journalists to the Dominican Republic to get a close behind-the-scenes look at how their rum is made. Sugar Cane Tavern I live near by, and this may be my favorite neighborhood corner bar.
Energy efficiency in sugar manufacturing process
Molasses, from the Latin word melaceres, meaning honey-like, is a thick dark syrup that is a byproduct of sugar refining. It results when sugar is crystallized out of sugar cane or sugar beet juice. Molasses is sold both for human consumption, to be used in baking, and in the brewing of ale and distillation of rum, and as an ingredient in animal feed. The pressing of cane to produce cane juice and then boiling the juice until it crystallized was developed in India as early as B.
For Red Category Organisations, consents are granted valid for 5 years. For details please refer to Notification No. For Orange Category Organisations, consents are granted valid for 5 years. For Green Category Organisations, consents are granted valid for 10 years. Basic chemicals and electro chemicals and its derivatives including manufacturing of acid. Coke making , liquefaction, coal tar distillation or fuel gas making. Industrial carbon including electrodes and graphite blocks, activated carbon, carbon black. Isolated storage of hazardous chemicals as per schedule of manufacturing, storage of hazardous chemicals rules , as amended ,Crude oil Storage capacity of 2. Lead acid battery manufacturing excluding assembling and charging of lead-acid battery in micro scale. Manufacturing of explosives, detonators, fuses including management and handling activities.
Horizontal tube evaporators are used frequently in the pulp and paper industry to concentrate solids into a slurry by evaporating off water and other liquids. The electric generator rotates, producing electricity. Measurements used to specify process conditions. Nanotechnology 3. This section provides information about the initiatives taken by the Union and state Governments to facilitate the industrial growth in the country. Ongoing chemical plant explosions are devastating and point to the need for improved design and upgrading of facilities that use flammable substances. Carolina Industrial Commission was created as part of the original North Carolina Workers' Compensation Act of as an educational, training, and public relations unit to promote industrial safety and accident prevention in the industrial workplaces of the state of North Carolina. Process-monitoring instrument—An instrument or device used to indicate conditions during pro- cessing at a critical control point. In general, it's best to avoid the following ingredients.
10 ways food is wasted by manufacturers
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Jensen, J. Graham and Donald L.
Industrial water: Our essential guide to pollution, treatment & solutions
Agave bagasse is a similar material that consists of the tissue of the blue agave after extraction of the sap. For every 10 tonnes of sugarcane crushed, a sugar factory produces nearly three tonnes of wet bagasse.