Halal food means permitted food toward Islamic rules according the documents of International The Codex Alimentarius Committee and it is defined as including halal factors and preparing- processing- bringing- storing in the places suit to these factors. In addition to the halal certificates of food products; sanitation and purity are very important. The population of Muslim people reached to 1. This amount is being predicted to reach to 3.
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First report of camel contagious ecthyma in NigeriaVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Emirates Industry for Camel Milk and Products
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat , fibre , milk , eggs , or other products. It includes day-to-day care, selective breeding and the raising of livestock. Husbandry has a long history, starting with the Neolithic revolution when animals were first domesticated , from around 13, BC onwards, antedating farming of the first crops.
By the time of early civilisations such as ancient Egypt , cattle , sheep , goats and pigs were being raised on farms. Major changes took place in the Columbian Exchange when Old World livestock were brought to the New World, and then in the British Agricultural Revolution of the 18th century, when livestock breeds like the Dishley Longhorn cattle and Lincoln Longwool sheep were rapidly improved by agriculturalists such as Robert Bakewell to yield more meat, milk, and wool.
A wide range of other species such as horse , water buffalo , llama , rabbit and guinea pig are used as livestock in some parts of the world. Insect farming , as well as aquaculture of fish , molluscs , and crustaceans , is widespread.
Modern animal husbandry relies on production systems adapted to the type of land available. Subsistence farming is being superseded by intensive animal farming in the more developed parts of the world, where for example beef cattle are kept in high density feedlots , and thousands of chickens may be raised in broiler houses or batteries.
On poorer soil such as in uplands, animals are often kept more extensively, and may be allowed to roam widely, foraging for themselves. Most livestock are herbivores , except for pigs and chickens which are omnivores. Ruminants like cattle and sheep are adapted to feed on grass; they can forage outdoors, or may be fed entirely or in part on rations richer in energy and protein, such as pelleted cereals. Pigs and poultry cannot digest the cellulose in forage, and require cereals and other high-energy foods.
The verb to husband , meaning "to manage carefully," derives from an older meaning of husband , which in the 14th century referred to the ownership and care of a household or farm, but today means the "control or judicious use of resources," and in agriculture, the cultivation of plants or animals.
The domestication of livestock was driven by the need to have food on hand when hunting was unproductive. The desirable characteristics of a domestic animal are that it should be useful to the domesticator, should be able to thrive in his or her company, should breed freely, and be easy to tend. Domestication was not a single event, but a process repeated at various periods in different places. Sheep and goats were the animals that accompanied the nomads in the Middle East, while cattle and pigs were associated with more settled communities.
The first wild animal to be domesticated was the dog. Half-wild dogs, perhaps starting with young individuals, may have been tolerated as scavengers and killers of vermin, and being naturally pack hunters , were predisposed to become part of the human pack and join in the hunt.
Prey animals, sheep, goats, pigs and cattle, were progressively domesticated early in the history of agriculture. Pigs were domesticated in Mesopotamia around 13, BC,  and sheep followed, some time between 11, and 9, BC. A cow was a great advantage to a villager as she produced more milk than her calf needed, and her strength could be put to use as a working animal , pulling a plough to increase production of crops, and drawing a sledge, and later a cart, to bring the produce home from the field.
Draught animals were first used about 4, BC in the Middle East, increasing agricultural production immeasurably. Fossilised chicken bones dated to BC have been found in northeastern China, far from where their wild ancestors lived in the jungles of tropical Asia, but archaeologists believe that the original purpose of domestication was for the sport of cockfighting.
Meanwhile, in South America, the llama and the alpaca had been domesticated, probably before 3, BC, as beasts of burden and for their wool. Neither was strong enough to pull a plough which limited the development of agriculture in the New World.
Horses occur naturally on the steppes of Central Asia, and their domestication, around 3, BC in the Black Sea and Caspian Sea region, was originally as a source of meat; use as pack animals and for riding followed. Around the same time, the wild ass was being tamed in Egypt. Camels were domesticated soon after this,  with the Bactrian camel in Mongolia and the Arabian camel becoming beasts of burden.
In ancient Egypt , cattle were the most important livestock, and sheep, goats, and pigs were also kept; poultry including ducks, geese, and pigeons were captured in nets and bred on farms, where they were force-fed with dough to fatten them. The Nile provided a plentiful source of fish. Honey bees were domesticated from at least the Old Kingdom, providing both honey and wax. In ancient Rome , all the livestock known in ancient Egypt were available.
In addition, rabbits were domesticated for food by the first century BC. To help flush them out from their burrows, the polecat was domesticated as the ferret , its use described by Pliny the Elder. In northern Europe, agriculture including animal husbandry went into decline when the Roman empire collapsed. Some aspects such as the herding of animals continued throughout the period. By the 11th century, the economy had recovered and the countryside was again productive. The Domesday Book recorded every parcel of land and every animal in England: "there was not one single hide, nor a yard of land, nay, moreover Woodland for [feeding] 70 pigs.
Exploration and colonisation of North and South America resulted in the introduction into Europe of such crops as maize, potatoes, sweet potatoes and manioc, while the principal Old World livestock — cattle, horses, sheep and goats — were introduced into the New World for the first time along with wheat, barley, rice and turnips. Selective breeding for desired traits was established as a scientific practice by Robert Bakewell during the British Agricultural Revolution in the 18th century.
One of his most important breeding programs was with sheep. Using native stock, he was able to quickly select for large, yet fine-boned sheep, with long, lustrous wool. The Lincoln Longwool was improved by Bakewell and in turn the Lincoln was used to develop the subsequent breed, named the New or Dishley Leicester. It was hornless and had a square, meaty body with straight top lines.
Under his influence, English farmers began to breed cattle for use primarily as beef. Long-horned heifers were crossed with the Westmoreland bull to create the Dishley Longhorn. The semi-natural, unfertilised pastures formed by traditional agricultural methods in Europe were managed by grazing and mowing.
As the ecological impact of this land management strategy is similar to the impact of such natural disturbances as a wildfire , this agricultural system shares many beneficial characteristics with a natural habitat, including the promotion of biodiversity.
This strategy is declining in Europe today due to the intensification of agriculture. The mechanized and chemical methods used are causing biodiversity to decline. Traditionally, animal husbandry was part of the subsistence farmer's way of life, producing not only the food needed by the family but also the fuel, fertiliser, clothing, transport and draught power. Killing the animal for food was a secondary consideration, and wherever possible its products, such as wool, eggs, milk and blood by the Maasai were harvested while the animal was still alive.
Animals can be kept extensively or intensively. Extensive systems involve animals roaming at will, or under the supervision of a herdsman, often for their protection from predators.
Ranching in the Western United States involves large herds of cattle grazing widely over public and private lands.
Similar cattle stations are found in South America, Australia and other places with large areas of land and low rainfall. Similar ranching systems have been used for sheep , deer , ostrich , emu , llama and alpaca. In the uplands of the United Kingdom, sheep are turned out on the fells in spring and graze the abundant mountain grasses untended, being brought to lower altitudes late in the year, with supplementary feeding being provided in winter.
At the other extreme, in the more developed parts of the world, animals are often intensively managed ; dairy cows may be kept in zero-grazing conditions with all their forage brought to them; beef cattle may be kept in high density feedlots ;  pigs may be housed in climate-controlled buildings and never go outdoors;  poultry may be reared in barns and kept in cages as laying birds under lighting-controlled conditions.
In between these two extremes are semi-intensive, often family-run farms where livestock graze outside for much of the year, silage or hay is made to cover the times of year when the grass stops growing, and fertiliser, feed, and other inputs are brought onto the farm from outside. Animals used as livestock are predominantly herbivorous , the main exceptions being the pig and the chicken which are omnivorous. The herbivores can be divided into "concentrate selectors" which selectively feed on seeds, fruits and highly nutritious young foliage, "grazers" which mainly feed on grass, and "intermediate feeders" which choose their diet from the whole range of available plant material.
Cattle, sheep, goats, deer and antelopes are ruminants ; they digest food in two steps, chewing and swallowing in the normal way, and then regurgitating the semidigested cud to chew it again and thus extract the maximum possible food value. Grasses grow from the base of the leaf-blade, enabling it to thrive even when heavily grazed or cut.
In many climates grass growth is seasonal, for example in the temperate summer or tropical rainy season , so some areas of the crop are set aside to be cut and preserved, either as hay dried grass , or as silage fermented grass. Extensively reared animals may subsist entirely on forage, but more intensively kept livestock will require energy and protein-rich foods in addition. Energy is mainly derived from cereals and cereal by-products, fats and oils and sugar-rich foods, while protein may come from fish or meat meal, milk products, legumes and other plant foods, often the by-products of vegetable oil extraction.
The ingredients for the animals' rations can be grown on the farm or can be bought, in the form of pelleted or cubed, compound foodstuffs specially formulated for the different classes of livestock, their growth stages and their specific nutritional requirements. Vitamins and minerals are added to balance the diet. The breeding of farm animals seldom occurs spontaneously but is managed by farmers with a view to encouraging traits seen as desirable.
These include hardiness, fertility, docility, mothering abilities, fast growth rates, low feed consumption per unit of growth, better body proportions, higher yields, and better fibre qualities. Undesirable traits such as health defects and aggressiveness are selected against. Selective breeding has been responsible for large increases in productivity. For example, in , a typical broiler chicken at eight weeks old was 4.
Good husbandry, proper feeding, and hygiene are the main contributors to animal health on the farm, bringing economic benefits through maximised production. When, despite these precautions, animals still become sick, they are treated with veterinary medicines , by the farmer and the veterinarian.
In the European Union, when farmers treat their own animals, they are required to follow the guidelines for treatment and to record the treatments given. Some, like classical swine fever  and scrapie  are specific to one type of stock, while others, like foot-and-mouth disease affect all cloven-hoofed animals. Where the condition is serious, governments impose regulations on import and export, on the movement of stock, quarantine restrictions and the reporting of suspected cases.
Vaccines are available against certain diseases, and antibiotics are widely used where appropriate. At one time, antibiotics were routinely added to certain compound foodstuffs to promote growth, but this practice is now frowned on in many countries because of the risk that it may lead to antibiotic resistance.
Animals living under intensive conditions are particularly prone to internal and external parasites; increasing numbers of sea lice are affecting farmed salmon in Scotland. Governments are particularly concerned with zoonoses , diseases that humans may acquire from animals. Wild animal populations may harbour diseases that can affect domestic animals which may acquire them as a result of insufficient biosecurity.
An outbreak of Nipah virus in Malaysia in was traced back to pigs becoming ill after contact with fruit-eating flying foxes , their faeces and urine. The pigs in turn passed the infection to humans. This virus is easily transmissible to domestic poultry, and to humans living in close proximity with them. Other infectious diseases affecting wild animals, farm animals and humans include rabies , leptospirosis , brucellosis , tuberculosis and trichinosis.
There is no single universally agreed definition of which species are livestock. Widely agreed types of livestock include cattle for beef and dairy, sheep, goats, pigs, and poultry. Various other species are sometimes considered livestock, such as horses,  while poultry birds are sometimes excluded.
In some parts of the world, livestock includes species such as buffalo, and the South American camelids, the alpaca and llama. Animals are raised for a wide variety of products, principally meat , wool , milk , and eggs , but also including tallow , isinglass and rennet.
Although all mammals produce milk to nourish their young, the cow is predominantly used throughout the world to produce milk and milk products for human consumption.
Other animals used to a lesser extent for this purpose include sheep, goats, camels, buffaloes, yaks, reindeer, horses and donkeys. All these animals have been domesticated over the centuries, being bred for such desirable characteristics as fecundity, productivity, docility and the ability to thrive under the prevailing conditions.
Back to Table of Contents. Click on the sections below to view the topics that they cover. There is a very important exemption from federal inspection for livestock producers that market freezer lamb, beef, goat, and hog. The meat and byproducts cannot be sold. In New York, it is assumed that a person owns an animal when they purchase it. Thus, a customer can purchase a lamb, goat, steer or hog from a farm or live animal market, take ownership of it, and either slaughter it themselves or arrange for slaughter and processing through a custom slaughterhouse.
While many books address specific aspects of food safety, no other book guides you through the various risks associated with each sector of the production process or alerts you to the measures needed to mitigate those risks. Using practical examples of incidents and their root causes, this book highlights pitfalls in food safety management and provides key insight into the means of avoiding them. Each section addresses its subject in terms of relevance and application to food safety and, where applicable, spoilage. It covers all types of risks e.
The Camel as Cow, a Cautionary Tale
Game farming is the domestication and commercial marketing of native and non-native wildlife for a variety of products, including meat, hides, feathers, and antlers. AWA supports living wildlife as part of our economy and we restrict this support to economies based on maintaining populations living wild in their natural habitats. AWA believes game farming of wildlife is neither economically nor environmentally viable. It is antiethical to wildlife, our system of conservation and our living wildlife economies.
Livestock singular or plural is any domesticated mammal intentionally reared in an agricultural setting for the purposes of profit or subsistence, whether for food, fiber , dairy, draft , breeding, sport purposes, or other product or labor. As such, livestock includes animals such as cattle , horses , sheep , and fur -bearing animals, but does not include farmed birds turkeys , chickens , pigeons , geese , fish , shellfish , amphibians frogs , and reptiles. It also does not include animals kept as pets. However, the term is not rigorously applied in all contexts and inclusion of poultry as livestock is not uncommon. And in many cases ratites emus , ostriches , rheas are considered as livestock when raised in an agricultural setting, even when poultry are not counted IRS. Raising animals animal husbandry is an important component of modern agriculture. It has been practiced in many societies, since the transition to farming from hunter-gather lifestyles. The ability to raise livestock has enabled the development of human societies and cultures, fostered commerce and international trade, and provided a steady source of food, labor, and other products for people. However, in recent years there has been a greater awareness of the need to address environmental concerns from the impact of livestock and their rearing as well as ethical concerns regarding the treatment of livestock.
Livestock Market Research Reports & Industry Analysis
This page reports to you on the concepts, defintions and classifications surrounding livestock statistics. The importance of collecting and publishing countries' agricultural statistics and the difficulties encountered in assembling them according to the maximum possible degree of international comparability as regards concepts, definitions and classifications, have been illustrated in Chapter I of the paper dealing with crop statistics. Importance of livestock.
This highly topical book comes at a time when the two-way relationship between humankind and the environment is moving inexorably to the top of the agenda. It covers both sides of this delicate balancing act, explaining how various natural processes influence humanity, including its economic activities and engineering structures, while also illuminating the ways in which human activity puts pressure on the natural environment. The author moves on to consider the effect we have on nature, ranging from the impact of heavy industry to the environmental consequences of sport and recreational pastimes. Complete with maps, photographs and detailed case studies, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the biggest issue we face as a species—the way we relate to the natural world around us. It will provide a valuable resource for both graduate students and researchers in many fields of knowledge. His research activities focus on the interaction between humanity and the environment, including the impact of nature on humanity; the impact of humanity on the environment; and assessment of the interaction environmental impact assessment, environmental audit, etc. He has authored eight and co-authored seven monographs. Springer Shop Amazon. Sergey M.
Humans depend upon animals for food and related by-products, work and a variety of other uses see table To meet these demands, they have domesticated or held in captivity species of mammals, birds, reptiles, fish and arthropods. These animals have become known as livestock, and rearing them has implications for occupational safety and health. This general profile of the industry includes its evolution and structure, the economic importance of different commodities of livestock, and regional characteristics of the industry and workforce. The articles in this chapter are organized by occupational processes, livestock sectors and consequences of livestock rearing. Livestock evolved over the past 12, years through selection by human communities and adaptation to new environments. Historians believe that goat and sheep were the first species of animals domesticated for human use. Then, about 9, years ago, humans domesticated the pig.
Humans keep domesticated animals because they provide something of value. Important but frequently overlooked contributions include draft power, manure, fibers, hides and other by-products. Diets based on meat, eggs and dairy products contain proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals and vitamins present in appropriate amounts and readily digestible forms to meet all human nutritional requirements. In the past, animal protein was considered essential in human diets but recent knowledge suggests that this is not absolutely true. A highly diversified vegetarian diet can also provide all necessities but these may be obtained more readily through consumption of some animal products. It must be conceded, however, that most people enjoy eating meat and dairy products and do so by choice rather than through absolute necessity. Developed countries have about one-third of the world's livestock but these produce somewhere between two-thirds and three-quarters of all products that pass through organized markets.
But you would be wrong. The camels grazing on this green patch of farmland a few miles outside of Den Bosch may look happy enough. But milking them is another story; moody camels are known to spit and kick, and mares will give milk only when one of their offspring is nearby.
A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back. Camels have long been domesticated and, as livestock , they provide food milk and meat and textiles fiber and felt from hair.
Domestic animals include alpaca, camel, cat, cattle, dog, donkey, horses, mule, and sheep. An example of a semi domestic animal would be a reindeer; an example of a wild animal is bison.
The range of topics covered by the more than articles is Bolero Ozon. Poultry Processing Tory Ashdown 67 Forestry Peter Poschen Chapter Editor.