High temperature and structural ceramic fibers and textiles for reliable flame, heat and impact resistance. Flame heat and impact resistant; lightweight, and high strength offering a total system cost savings! Once used to protect NASA Space Shuttles against the heat of reentry, today Nextel fabrics provide heat, flame and impact shielding for aircraft and spacecraft. Here on earth, Nextel products are used in such varied applications as seals and gaskets, electrical insulation and composite reinforcement. Made of continuous ceramic oxide fibers, Nextel products are available in a variety of forms, including chopped fibers, sewing threads, braided sleevings and woven fabrics. Nextel fibers are coated during manufacture with sizings or finishes to aid textile processing.
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- Nylon Fibers
- Evidence Collection Guidelines
- We apologize for the inconvenience...
- Textile-Based Electronic Components for Energy Applications: Principles, Problems, and Perspective
- Wearable woven supercapacitor fabrics with high energy density and load-bearing capability
- Banana Pseudo-Stem Fiber: Preparation, Characteristics, and Applications
- 3M™ Nextel™ Ceramic Fibers and Textiles
- THE CHALLENGE
- How do I store antique textiles at home?
- Metallic fiber
Nylon FibersVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Processing Hemp Fibers - Combing Spinning
Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres , suitable for use in the production of textiles , sewing , crocheting , knitting , weaving , embroidery , or ropemaking. Modern manufactured sewing threads may be finished with wax or other lubricants to withstand the stresses involved in sewing.
Yarn can be made from a number of natural or synthetic fibers. Many types of yarn are made differently though. There are two main types of yarn: spun and filament. The most common plant fiber is cotton , which is typically  spun into fine yarn for mechanical weaving or knitting into cloth. Cotton and polyester are the most commonly spun fibers in the world. Cotton is grown throughout the world. After harvesting it is ginned and prepared for yarn spinning.
Polyester is extruded from polymers derived from natural gas and oil. Synthetic fibers are generally extruded in continuous strands of gel-state materials. These strands are drawn stretched , annealed hardened , and cured to obtain properties desirable for later processing. Synthetic fibers come in three basic forms: staple, tow, and filament. Staple is cut fibers, generally sold in lengths up to mm. Tow is a continuous "rope" of fibers consisting of many filaments loosely joined side-to-side.
Filament is a continuous strand consisting of anything from 1 filament to many. Synthetic fiber is most often measured in a weight per linear measurement basis , along with cut length. Denier and Dtex are the most common weight to length measures. Cut-length only applies to staple fiber. Filament extrusion is sometimes referred to as "spinning" but most people equate spinning with spun yarn production.
The most commonly spun animal fiber is wool harvested from sheep. For hand knitting and hobby knitting, wool and acrylic yarns are frequently used. Other animal fibers used include alpaca , angora , mohair , llama , cashmere , and silk. Natural fibers such as these have the advantage of being slightly elastic and very breathable, while trapping a great deal of air, making for some of the warmest fabrics in existence.
Other natural fibers that can be used for yarn include linen  and cotton. The finished product will also look rather different from the woolen yarns. Other plant fibers which can be spun include bamboo , hemp , maize , nettle , and soy fiber.
T-shirt yarn is a yarn made directly from t-shirts , and the fiber composition is determined by the material the t-shirt is made from. In general, natural fibers tend to require more careful handling than synthetics because they can shrink, felt , stain, shed, fade, stretch, wrinkle, or be eaten by moths more readily, unless special treatments such as mercerization or superwashing are performed to strengthen, fix color, or otherwise enhance the fiber's own properties.
Some types of protein yarns i. Plant fibers tend to be better tolerated by people with sensitivities to the protein yarns, and allergists may suggest using them or synthetics instead to prevent symptoms. Some people find that they can tolerate organically grown and processed versions of protein fibers, possibly because organic processing standards preclude the use of chemicals that may irritate the skin [ citation needed ].
When natural hair-type fibers are burned, they tend to singe and have a smell of burnt hair; this is because many, as human hair, are protein-derived. Cotton and viscose rayon yarns burn as a wick. Synthetic yarns generally tend to melt though some synthetics are inherently flame-retardant. Noting how an unidentified fiber strand burns and smells can assist in determining if it is natural or synthetic, and what the fiber content is. Both synthetic and natural yarns can pill.
Pilling is a function of fiber content, spinning method, twist, contiguous staple length, and fabric construction. Single ply yarns or using fibers like merino wool are known to pill more due to the fact that in the former, the single ply is not tight enough to securely retain all the fibers under abrasion, and the merino wool's short staple length allows the ends of the fibers to pop out of the twist more easily. Yarns combining synthetic and natural fibers inherit the properties of each parent, according to the proportional composition.
Synthetics are added to lower cost, increase durability, add unusual color or visual effects, provide machine washability and stain resistance, reduce heat retention or lighten garment weight. Spun yarn is made by twisting staple fibres together to make a cohesive thread, or "single. Spun yarns may contain a single type of fibre, or be a blend of various types.
Combining synthetic fibres which can have high strength, lustre, and fire retardant qualities with natural fibres which have good water absorbency and skin comforting qualities is very common. The most widely used blends are cotton - polyester and wool - acrylic fibre blends. Blends of different natural fibres are common too, especially with more expensive fibres such as alpaca , angora and cashmere. Yarn is selected for different textiles based on the characteristics of the yarn fibres, such as warmth wool , light weight cotton or rayon , durability nylon is added to sock yarn, for example , or softness cashmere, alpaca.
Yarn is composed of twisted strands of fiber, which are known as plies when grouped together. For a single ply yarn, the direction of the final twist is the same as its original twist.
The twist direction of yarn can affect the final properties of the fabric, and combined use of the two twist directions can nullify skewing in knitted fabric. The mechanical integrity of yarn is derived from frictional contacts between its composing fibers. The science behind this was first studied by Galileo. Filament yarn consists of filament fibres very long continuous fibres either twisted together or only grouped together.
Thicker monofilaments are typically used for industrial purposes rather than fabric production or decoration. Silk is a natural filament, and synthetic filament yarns are used to produce silk-like effects. Texturized yarns are made by a process of air texturizing filament yarns sometimes referred to as taslanizing , which combines multiple filament yarns into a yarn with some of the characteristics of spun yarns. Slub Effect means a yarn with thick and thin sections alternating regularly or irregularly.
Yarn may be used undyed, or may be coloured with natural or artificial dyes. Most yarns have a single uniform hue, but there is also a wide selection of variegated yarns:. Yarn quantities for handcrafts are usually measured and sold by weight in ounces or grams.
Some companies also primarily measure in ounces with common sizes being three- ounce , four-ounce, six-ounce, and eight-ounce skeins. Textile measurements are taken at a standard temperature and humidity, because fibers can absorb moisture from the air. There are several thicknesses of craft yarn, also referred to as weight.
The Craft Yarn Council of America is making an effort to promote a standardized industry system for measuring this, numbering the weights from 1 finest to 6 heaviest. This naming convention is more descriptive than precise; fibre artists disagree about where on the continuum each lies, and the precise relationships between the sizes.
Another measurement of yarn weight, often used by weavers, is wraps per inch WPI. The yarn is wrapped snugly around a ruler and the number of wraps that fit in an inch are counted.
Labels on yarn for handicrafts often include information on gauge , known in the UK as tension, which is a measurement of how many stitches and rows are produced per inch or per cm on a specified size of knitting needle or crochet hook. Many other units have been used over time by different industries.
Below are the images taken by a digital USB microscope. These show how the yarn looks in different kinds of clothes when magnified. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the fibre product. For the type of joke, see Shaggy dog story. For the computing resource-management platform, see Hadoop. For the package manager, see Yarn package manager. For the music group, see Yarn music group. Main article: Spinning textiles. Archived from the original on Retrieved Bloomsbury Publishing USA. Norton, , p. Construction Materials Reference Book. Physical Review Letters.
Retrieved 24 April Amigurumi Bilum Doily. Broomstick lace Crocheted lace Filet crochet Hairpin lace Irish crochet. Crochet thread Dye lot Yarn. Knitting needle Knitting needle cap Needle gauge List of yarns for crochet and knitting Row counter Stitch holder. Aran Argyle Fair Isle Intarsia. Walker Elizabeth Zimmermann. Neckline Felled seam Seam allowance Style line. Notions Trim. Sewing machine manufacturers.
Textile arts. Byzantine silk Clothing and textiles Silk Quilting Silk in the Indian subcontinent Textile manufacturing by pre-industrial methods Textiles in the British Industrial Revolution Timeline of textile technology. Dyeing terms Sewing terms Textile manufacturing terms.
Textiles Warp and weft Yarn. More looms Kissing the shuttle Piece-rate list.
The products and brands we make at our facilities around the world intersect with your daily life, even though you may not always notice them. This includes the polymers, fibers and resins we make, as well as the brands, trademarks and innovations we take to market for the benefit of everyone. Since the s, nylon has become an essential part of everyday life. As a versatile thermoplastic, nylon 6,6 can be melted and shaped to serve many applications, from heat-resistant auto parts to consumer electronics and kitchen appliances. But nylon 6,6 pellets can also be melted and extruded as continuous fibers.
Evidence Collection Guidelines
We can always guarantee the ecological sustainability of our garments, because we have developed our own global textile and manufacturing supply chain. By monitoring our source materials and the recycling process in detail, we can ensure that the quality of our products meets the standards of our clients and their customers. With the help of the best experts and suppliers in the industry, we have reached a level of textile quality that is the same, and in many cases better, than that of traditional fabrics. Instead, we concentrate on basic garments. We believe everyone should have the possibility to make a better choice with Pure Waste. We then sort it by quality and color. The color of the waste, defines the color of the final product.
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Textile-based electronic components have gained interest in the fields of science and technology. Recent developments in nanotechnology have enabled the integration of electronic components into textiles while retaining desirable characteristics such as flexibility, strength, and conductivity. Various materials were investigated in detail to obtain current conductive textile technology, and the integration of electronic components into these textiles shows great promise for common everyday applications. The harvest and storage of energy in textile electronics is a challenge that requires further attention in order to enable complete adoption of this technology in practical implementations. This review focuses on the various conductive textiles, their methods of preparation, and textile-based electronic components. We also focus on fabrication and the function of textile-based energy harvesting and storage devices, discuss their fundamental limitations, and suggest new areas of study. Electronic devices have the ability to address basic needs [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ].
Textile-Based Electronic Components for Energy Applications: Principles, Problems, and Perspective
Hair - Analysts can tell investigators if individual hairs are human or animal, and in the case of human hair, where on the body the sample originated. Samples can be tested to determine the color, shape and chemical composition of the hair, and often the race of the source individual. The presence of toxins, dyes and hair treatments are noted. This information can assist investigators in including or excluding particular individuals as the source of the hair.
Metallic fibers are manufactured fibers composed of metal, metallic alloys, plastic-coated metal, metal-coated plastic, or a core completely covered by metal. Having their origin in textile and clothing applications, gold and silver fibers have been used since ancient times as yarns for fabric decoration. More recently, aluminum yarns, aluminized plastic yarns, and aluminized nylon yarns have replaced gold and silver. Today's metal fiber industry mainly offers fibers in stainless steel, nickel, titanium, copper and aluminum for various applications . Metallic filaments can be coated with transparent films to minimize tarnishing. Metal fiber may also be shaved from wire steel wool , shaven from foil  , bundle drawn from larger diameter wire  , machined from an ingot  , cast from molten metal, or grown around a seed often carbon. Gold and silver have been used since ancient times as decoration in the clothing and textiles of kings, leaders, nobility and people of status. Many of these elegant textiles can be found in museums around the world. They have been woven on Byzantine looms from the 7th to 9th Centuries, and after that in Sicily , Cyprus , Lucca , and Venice. During the early s, Brunswick Corp. They started producing metallic filaments in a laboratory-scale pilot plant.
Wearable woven supercapacitor fabrics with high energy density and load-bearing capability
These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online. Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. The successful commercialization of smart wearable garments is hindered by the lack of fully integrated carbon-based energy storage devices into smart wearables. Since electrodes are the active components that determine the performance of energy storage systems, it is important to rationally design and engineer hierarchical architectures atboth the nano- and macroscale that can enjoy all of the necessary requirements for a perfect electrode.
Banana Pseudo-Stem Fiber: Preparation, Characteristics, and Applications
The storage area should be clean, cool, dry, dark, and as free as possible from drastic changes in temperature and humidity, thus ruling out the basement or attic. It is also best to set aside one drawer or chest of drawers just for the storage of family heirlooms. Textiles should be stored as clean as possible because dust particles can actually cut fibers through friction and abrasion. Colorfast and washable items should be washed and stored unironed, unstarched and unblued. Information on wet cleaning cottons and linens, quilts and coverlets, and samplers is available upon written request. An item that cannot be cleaned in any other way should, if possible, be vacuumed.
3M™ Nextel™ Ceramic Fibers and Textiles
Maximizing customer value with innovative textile technology and a global trade network. Hyosung is one of the world's best manufacturers of nylon textile filament, is loved by customers around the world for its nylon fibers of outstanding quality and a variety of functions, all based on production know-how accumulated over 50 years.
Fiber manufacturers around the world appreciate the reliability of our spin finishes. In terms of frictional properties, protection against static charge, wettability and emulsifying capability, our products are at the top of the class. All that is necessary for a consequently outstanding running performance along the production chain regardless the technology used. Moreover, our chemical solutions are designed with sustainable principles, for high occupational safety and minimized environmental burden.
How do I store antique textiles at home?
This document provides evidence collection guidelines for the following types of evidence. Your agency's policies may vary. Please check with your supervisor if you have any questions. Blood that is in liquid pools should be picked up on a gauze pad or other clean sterile cotton cloth and allowed to air dry thoroughly, at room temperature.
Banana is one of the most well-known and useful plants in the world. Almost all the parts of this plant, that are, fruit, leaves, flower bud, trunk, and pseudo-stem, can be utilized. This chapter deals with the fiber extracted from the pseudo-stem of the banana plant. It discusses the production of banana pseudo-stem fiber, which includes plantation and harvesting; extraction of banana pseudo-stem fiber; retting; and degumming of the fiber.