I T is not impossible that some useful information may be conveyed by this book. Should these pages prove of such service, their cost in labor is most cheerfully donated. This volume is composed of a series of articles which appeared in a Trade Journal, covering a period of two years from to It must be accepted as but a brief history of an industry long identified with Baltimore. Sheriff for favors in lending rare and valuable old City directories; also to the many citizens who kindly aided and assisted in the search for needed information.
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- Can Wearing a Hat Contribute to Baldness?
- How to Care for Natural Fur and Faux Fur Hats
- Space – Russians’ Greatest Pride Revisited
- Wisconsin Hat Company
- Gears Made of Metallic Glass Could Be Ideal for Space Missions
- Iceman Ötzi rocks the bear-fur hat and goat-leather coat look
- Questions about the fur trade?
Can Wearing a Hat Contribute to Baldness?VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: FUR HAT PATTERN
Aboriginal: In general, the original inhabitants of a territory. In North America, aboriginal refers to the people living here before the arrival of Europeans, including Inuit and First Nation peoples. The first European newcomers called aboriginal peoples "Indians" because they believed that they had reached India. See also Native and First Nations. They imported necessary goods from England and stored them in Montreal warehouses.
They hired clerks and voyageurs to package and forward these trade goods to trading posts, via the rendezvous at Fort William. Generally, three or more of the agents would make the journey themselves to Fort William to meet with the company's Wintering Partners and conduct NWC business in the Council House.
Agret: A collection of materials used by voyageurs en route to make repairs to the canoe and to furnish their camp. According to Alexander Mackenzie, the standard agret consisted of: "two oil-cloths to cover the goods, a sail, etc. Agriculture: The science or art of cultivating the soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Aboriginal peoples were engaged in agriculture before the arrival of Europeans in the New World, raising crops such as corn, squash, beans and tobacco. Corn became a staple food for voyageur brigades during the fur trade era as corn and grease. Some NWC posts also kept gardens to supplement their diet. In order to produce vital food supplies, plus many other items, a significant farming operation was conducted at Fort William, outside the palisade walls.
See also farm. Algonquian: At the beginning of the 17th century there were 12 linguistic families in indigenous Canada. Within most of these linguistic families there were a number of languages and many dialects.
Historically, Algonquian speakers occupied a vast territory from the foothills of the Rockies to Labrador and the Maritimes. The Historical Atlas of Canada identifies 86 different dialects spoken within the 18 languages of the Algonquian linguistic family.
Europeans observed that it was not uncommon for Aboriginal peoples to speak more than one language as trade and diplomacy required. Many Algonquian words have been absorbed into the English language, such as chipmunk, caribou, hickory and squash; many place names also derive from Algonquian and other indigenous linguistic groups. The word comes from the Algonquian language and is translated as "first people" or "original people". Apothecary: This building at Fort William housed the apothecary shop and the doctor's surgery and summer living quarters since Dr.
McLoughlin wintered each year at another post. During the summer period, the apothecary acted as a warehouse for drugs and chemicals received from Montreal for transfer to departments in the interior. Medicines were prepared here and dispensed to company personnel during the rendezvous. John McLoughlin provided medical treatment for all company employees, including gentlemen and voyageurs.
See also hospital. Avant: The name given to the experienced voyageur who paddled at the very front or bow of the canoe. The avant watched for obstacles and changes in the river and set the pace for paddling.
The avant was one of two "end" positions in the canoe: the avant at the bow and the gouvernail at the stern. These positions were called "les bouts" the "ends".
The avant was sometimes called devant, French for "in front of". Assiniboine: Indigenous people occupying the North American plains and as far as the foothills of the Rocky Mountains during the fur trade era. They gradually moved from fur trapping and hunting to buffalo-hunting and pemmican production as their main economic activity.
Athabasca: The general region drained by the upper Athabasca River; a vast area, abundant in beaver and other fur-bearers, of crucial importance to the NWC fur trade. That winter, Pond obtained more furs than his canoes could carry.
In , Fort Chipewyan was founded and became a vital base of operations for extending fur trade exploration and trade westward. Today the Athabasca region straddles the northern part of Alberta and Saskatchewan. Babiche: Also spelled babich, babish, and battiches. Babiche is a French word for the thin strips of rawhide cut from moose, caribou or deer hides. Made by cutting hairless hides in a spiral, babiche was used for laces, threads, netting, making canoes and other uses.
Bales: Generally, the term "bale" referred to the 90 pound 40 kg packs of trade goods or furs that were transported by voyageurs. Bateau: A flat-bottomed cargo and passenger boat about feet long, tapered to bow and stern, drawing a little water, and propelled by oars, poles, or a sail, capable of carrying up to 2 tonnes of cargo kg. Originally designed for the treacherous river route between Upper Canada and Lower Canada, at Fort William bateaux were used to shuttle cargo to and from the Company's schooners and to move provisions to the Mountain Portage Kakabeka Falls on the Kaministiquia River for the inland journey from Fort William.
Bateaux could also ferry provisions to near-at-hand posts on Lake Superior. Beadwork: Complicated geometric and later, floral patterns, created by sewing thousands of tiny "seed" beads onto garments, moccasins, and other items. Rich dress was valued throughout the Great Lakes: a display of richly decorated clothing was a further mark of the successful hunter and warrior. Personal decoration was not simply a display of material wealth, but a statement and mark of respect for spiritual assistance and guidance.
Floral designs appeared at the beginning of the nineteenth century, and by mid-century had largely replaced the earlier geometric patterns. Beaver Castor canadensis : The history of Canada has been profoundly influenced by the beaver. This semi-aquatic rodent has webbed hind feet and a broad flat tail, but most importantly, it has a thick, soft, underfur. Aboriginal peoples trapped beaver and traded the pelts to European traders. Pelts were transported from the interior of North America to Europe to make beaver top hats.
Depending on the size of the beaver and the size and quality of the hat, it took, on average, one pelt to make one beaver hat. Once the hair had been removed from the pelts, the less valuable skins could be used by trunk makers, shoemakers, and by turners to make sieves for sifting grain and seeds.
Beaver Club: Founded in by a group of Nor'Westers, the Beaver Club consisted of agents and former wintering partners of the Concern who had spent at least one winter in the interior of North America. The members of the Beaver Club would gather every fortnight two weeks between the months of December and April.
Members would take turns hosting the event and several rules were established to govern the behaviour of those who attended, including the admittance of new members and the wearing of a Beaver Club medallion with a ribbon of sky blue.
Beaver Lodges: Beavers build lodges of up to 20 feet 6 m across the base and 3 to 5 feet Within the lodge a circular chamber about two feet high and six feet across is built with its floor about four inches above water level. Two entrances are built into this chamber, both being from two to three feet below water on the outside. The outside of the lodge is plastered with short sticks and mud from the bottom of the pond until it is a smooth conical shape.
Not to be confused with lodges, dams are built and maintained to ensure a continuous water level in the beaver pond. From the French "bis", meaning twice, and "cuit", meaning cooked. Ship's biscuit, also called hard tack, pilot bread and sea biscuit, was an important travel food for sailors and voyageurs. Birch bark: The white outer shell of the birch tree Betula papyrifera - birch bark - was used extensively by Aboriginal people for shelter wigwams , transportation canoes , and storage makuks.
Bark is best gathered in early summer or during a long winter thaw. Normally it is used in the same year that it is gathered, but it may be stored in rolls and soaked and heated before using. Birch bark that is removed with "inner rind" adhering to it is often referred to as "winter bark" and is considered far superior for canoe building versus "summer bark" which can be dry, badly layered, and prone to cracking.
Blankets: Woollen blankets were among the most valued trade items for Native peoples. Wool is lighter than fur and even when wet offers excellent protection from the elements. Blankets were used as bed covers, mattresses, for making coats, capots, and as a covering for Native women who preferred blankets to coats. The blankets were categorized by "points": a system introduced by the HBC in The points were woven into the blanket along the selvedge and refer to the size and weight.
Bourgeois: In the North West Company, the bourgeois were educated men of usually Scottish or English descent engaged in the fur trade as salaried clerks and shareholders. Essentially, bourgeois were the middle or merchant class.
Brigade: In the NWC, a fleet of three or more canoes, each canoe manned by a crew of voyageurs. Travelling in brigades offered some extra security if a canoe encountered trouble and also made for a larger labour force at portages.
Butterchurn: a vessel used for making butter in which cream is agitated in order to separate the butter from the milk. The cooper at Fort William made churns, buckets and tubs for the dairy. Canadien workers had similar employment options, usually lumbering, canal building, work with fur trade companies, and, later, railway construction.
Lower Canada remained the focus for recruitment. In as the fur trade waned, Sir George Simpson HBC claimed that French Canadians were difficult to recruit, and described them as having "the dash, the vivacity and the song, which characterised the old voyageurs and were the chief attractions of canoeing. Aboriginal peoples used these vessels for transportation relating to trade, war, camp movement and subsistence activities.
This surprisingly sturdy watercraft made of birch bark was used to transport goods and furs along the many lakes and rivers of North America.
Crafted entirely of materials readily available in the forests, this canoe allowed Europeans to explore a landscape impenetrable by European watercraft. This canoe was probably named for Louis LeMaitre, the canoe builder from the very productive LeMaitre canoe manufactory in Trois-Rivieres.
This massive canoe could carry almost four tons lbs or kg. From here the brigades traveled up the north channel of Lake Huron to Sault Ste. Marie, across to Lake Superior then on to Fort William. This route required a minimum of thirty-three portages plus the canoe was unloaded every night, overturned, and tarped over to make a covered sleeping area. This canoe averaged 36 feet 11 m in length, was 6 feet 1. Empty, it could weigh more than pounds kg , but could still be carried by six men over portages.
Nicholas Garry's diary gives a wonderful description of the loading of this canoe: "The first part of the Loading is to place 4 Poles or long sticks at the bottom of the Canoe which run the whole Length. These support the whole weight and prevent the Bottom being injured. The Pieces or Packs which weigh about 90 lbs.
A Canoe takes 60 pieces and this with the Weight of Provisions, etc. In this frail Bark they go for thousands of Miles seldom meeting with serious Accidents.
And even if there's just a bit of fur trim, both types of fur need some special care to keep them looking silky and to provide long-lasting wear. Whether you have a mink, fox or rabbit fur hat, proper care will make it last many, many years. Natural fur hats should be protected from chemicals like make-up, perfume, and hair products; so, never apply these products while wearing the hat. After every wearing, allow the hat to "rest" on a hat form to dry completely from body moisture and outside elements and to help retain its shape. If your real fur hat gets wet, shake off excess water and allow the fur to dry naturally away from direct heat sources and the sun. Place the hat on a wig or hat form or over a rounded vase or jar so that air can circulate freely.
How to Care for Natural Fur and Faux Fur Hats
Account Options Sign in. United States. War Industries Board. Selected pages Page Page viii. Title Page. Table of Contents.
Space – Russians’ Greatest Pride Revisited
Did you use this instructable in your classroom? Add a Teacher Note to share how you incorporated it into your lesson. A great little article. But please people use eggs to tan hides its much quicker and you get a great hide in a day and without using battery acid!!SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Where does gold come from? - David Lunney
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Wisconsin Hat Company
Latest Issue. Past Issues. Unlike other astronauts, Kelly has an identical twin, Mark, an astronaut himself. This gave researchers an uncommon opportunity to monitor the two brothers as they lived in two very different environments—one on Earth and the other miles above it.
Wisconsin Hat Company. Jacobson Hat Company Men's Beard Our expert sales staff and customer service representatives understand your needs, and can help to maximize your Headwear profits. Wisconsin information resource links to state homepage, symbols, flags, maps, constitutions, representitives, songs, birds, flowers, trees. Add reviews and photos for Hat Creek Candle Co. By shaping your new hat yourself you can get a custom fit and the perfect shape to your hat. Listed below are the cities of Wisconsin that we serve. Hats for Women. Enjoy responsibly. Shop Books. This site is dedicated to the men of the Iron Brigade. After much experimenting with hot wax and fragrances, Hat Creek Candle was born.
Gears Made of Metallic Glass Could Be Ideal for Space Missions
Indians would trade the pelts of small animals, such as mink, for knives and other iron-based products, or for textiles. Exchange at first was haphazard and it was only in the late sixteenth century, when the wearing of beaver hats became fashionable, that firms were established who dealt exclusively in furs. High quality pelts are available only where winters are severe, so the trade took place predominantly in the regions we now know as Canada, although some activity took place further south along the Mississippi River and in the Rocky Mountains. There was also a market in deer skins that predominated in the Appalachians. The first firms to participate in the fur trade were French, and under French rule the trade spread along the St. Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers, and down the Mississippi.
Iceman Ötzi rocks the bear-fur hat and goat-leather coat look
By Natasha Khaleeq. This New Scientist article, usually accessible only to subscribers, is made available for free by the Museum of Applied Arts and Sciences in Sydney, Australia. It seems people at the time made their clothes from a wide variety of animals — some domestic and some wild. Now, his clothes are revealing what was trendy at the time: bear fur for hats, goat and sheep for coats, and cattle leather for shoelaces. This allowed the group to identify the species of origin for each fragment. The quiver was made from roe deer and the hat was made from brown bear. An alternative is that they acquired the wild animal parts by trading with other groups of people. And the coat was stitched together haphazardly from a combination of at least four hides from two species: goats and sheep. The leggings were made of goat leather, and the loincloth of sheep. All this supports the idea that Copper Age people looked for specific attributes in their materials when making clothing.
Questions about the fur trade?
A hat is a head covering which is worn for various reasons, including protection against weather conditions, ceremonial reasons such as university graduation, religious reasons, safety, or as a fashion accessory. Some hats have a protective function. As examples, the hard hat protects construction workers' heads from injury by falling objects and a British police Custodian helmet protects the officer's head, a sun hat shades the face and shoulders from the sun, a cowboy hat protects against sun and rain and an ushanka fur hat with fold-down earflaps keeps the head and ears warm. Some hats are worn for ceremonial purposes, such as the mortarboard , which is worn or carried during university graduation ceremonies.
Space, therefore, the use of new materials such as natural fibers with the unmistakable attention to detail that has always characterized our productions. We have taken the path that has always distinguished us for four generations, since , which is the careful selection of materials, experimenting with new shapes, never forgetting the high quality of the finished product. For four seasons, we have been offering our entire collection of fabrics and leathers following the biocompatible philosophy , rejecting all that considerable part of synthetic materials that are not originated by recycling.
HOUSTON -- If humans eventually want to become a space-faring species, we'll need to be able to collect basic resources, like water, straight from the space environment; it's too expensive and risky to send everything up from Earth, most experts agree. As such, multiple companies are now trying to initiate a space mining industry , which could provide those basic resources for space travelers, or for robotic space operations. In the future, asteroids or the moon could even provide humans with resources that are rare on Earth, such as precious metals. But there are major hurdles that need to be overcome before space mining can get off the ground, so to speak.
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