Abrasion Resistance - The resistance of a surface to being worn away by rubbing or friction. A measure of toughness more than of hardness. Abrasives - Various hard substances e. Fused Alumina used for grinding, cutting or polishing softer substances. Adhesion Test - Test methods used to determine the adequacy of ink coating adhesion to a substrate.
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Ceramic manufacturing companyVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Sanitary ware production line process factory
The present invention relates to an improved burning system in industrial furnace burners, more specifically for tunnel furnaces for burning ceramic material. The tunnel type furnaces, also known as trolley furnaces, are widely known in the prior art and have been used for decades to fire ceramic products, refractories etc. However, for each product to be fired there are different ideal internal temperature curves, subdivided in each section of the furnace, so as to provide the material with the desired structural properties.
These tunnel furnaces have a very good thermal efficiency compared to intermittent furnaces. This is due to many factors, among which the fact that, differently from what happens in intermittent furnaces, tunnel furnace insulations need not be heated.
As aforesaid, the material load in the trolleys goes in and moves continually along from one end of the furnace to the other, as in a conveyor belt, passing through several regions with different temperatures until the product is completely fired and cured.
In the first region of the furnace, the raw material passes through the preheating zone, where the furnace usually has burners working only on the lower part of the load between the upper insulation of the trolleys and the lower surface of the load support plates.
The second region through which the load passes is the main firing zone, which usually has burners on two levels, above and below the load. Upon leaving the firing zone, the load goes through a transition stage and then into the rapid cooling region. In this cooling region, which does not have burners, cold air is directly injected into the furnace, both under and over the load.
The fourth region through which the load passes is a transition zone called slow cooling zone, which precedes the fifth and last region, where the final cooling occurs by once again injecting a lot of air to cool the fired load to room temperature. Some prior-art documents teach the implementation of industrial furnaces and their respective burners. However, their purposes are not at all similar to those of the present invention. Document GB 1,,, filed on Sep.
Nevertheless, they are used in ovens having rotating rollers which turn so as to advance the articles load. These ovens, however, do not lower the gas consumption and do not even mention the use of burners.
Ovens like these are still used, but they commonly present problems, which is why this type of double pass roller oven is not built anymore. Document GB 2,,, filed on Jun. However, this document is directed to a specific problem which occurs with roller kilns for fine products.
Furthermore, it does not aim at reducing the consumption of gas fuel commonly used in this type of furnace. British document GB 2,,, filed on Oct. This furnace has a plurality of burners in which the secondary air can be used to feed the region of the burner flame in controlled amounts, according to the content of the gas component of the furnace. This document refers to the injection of secondary air into conventional burners.
It is still widely used nowadays, but only in intermittent furnaces and for fine products. The secondary air reduces the temperature of the flame and increases the gas volume inside the furnace, making it homogenous. Contrary to the purpose of the present invention, the gas consumption increases considerably.
Another existing solution is found in U. This document describes a tunnel kiln for ceramic products comprising a heating section, a firing section and a cooling section, where by means of gas conveying means gases are taken from the region of said cooling section and are conveyed to said firing section, whereby at least one additional burner is arranged in a transition region between said firing section and said cooling section.
This document has a similar concept to that of the present invention, in that it uses the clean air from the bottom of the kiln as combustion and valid air.
Furthermore, the invention uses conventional burners in the firing zone and comprises different burners in the 12 other injectors shown in FIG.
With the static flame, the localized temperatures are very high, leaving marks on the products and cracking the injector's gas outlet.
The present invention, on the other hand, proposes to place injectors all along the firing zone and to use flame rotation. This characteristic is important not to burn all the oxygen in one place only. Another aim of the invention is to avoid localized heating at the point where the flame forms by using flame rotation, and consequently avoiding undesirable marks in the end product and cracking of the injectors.
The system presented herein can be better understood from the following detailed description of the figures. The load 10 , that is, the ceramic products, refractories etc. For each product there are internal temperature curves in each section of the furnace so as to provide the material with the desired properties.
As can be seen in FIG. The bottom chart in FIG. The furnace has ceramic insulation 15 on the sides and on the ceiling. The thickness of said insulation 15 depends on the characteristics of the latter and on the temperature in that region. Back to FIG. These trolleys are positioned one directly after the other, from the entrance to the exit of the furnace.
Only the first trolley needs to be pushed with a hydraulic cylinder for the whole trolley train to move forward one position. The forward speed of the cylinder that pushes the trolleys depends on the material to be fired. The insulation and the support columns 12 of the load 10 support plates 11 are placed over the steel frame. In order to avoid gas from going into or coming out of the furnace through the sides of the trolleys, they have skirts 14 that slide along a chute filled with sand.
Furthermore, as aforesaid, the material load in the trolleys goes in and moves continually from one end of the furnace to the other, as in a conveyor belt, passing through several regions with different temperatures until the product is completely fired and cured. In the first region of the furnace, as can be seen in FIG. In the second region, according to FIG. The combustion gases generated move in the opposite direction and are sucked out by the furnace draft 20 in the entrance illustrated in FIG.
Upon leaving the firing zone, the load moves to a subregion, passing through a short transition zone, then moves to the third region, the rapid cooling zone This cooling region does not have burners and this is where the cool air is directly injected into the furnace, both under and over the load.
These three last regions, the rapid cooling, slow cooling and final cooling zones, are illustrated in FIG. As can be noted from the description above, the air and its temperature are the key factors for perfectly curing the material to be fired, specially the cooling air. Part of the air is sucked out at the exit of the furnace by the hot air suction system However, a large volume of the air is sucked out by the furnace draft, at the entrance of the furnace.
It is precisely the air sucked out by the furnace draft that greatly distinguishes a tunnel furnace from an intermittent furnace. This air is not found in intermittent furnaces. In other words, these furnaces are big heat exchangers, in which the load moves from the entrance to the exit and the gases move from the exit to the entrance. Tunnel furnaces used nowadays have burners divided into firing groups, as shown in the cross-section view of FIG.
A tunnel furnace has from 3 to 11 firing groups. Each module of the furnace is about 2 to 3 m long and the burners on the same side of the furnace are separated by a space of from 0.
The burners on the opposite side, however, are not aligned. Each conventional burner injects gas and air with an air excess factor in the range of from about 0. This means that, for example, in order to burn 1 m 3 of a natural gas, a minimum air volume of 8. Consequently, this means that the conventional burner injects, for each m 3 of gas, an air flow rate varying from 0.
Generally, the cold ambient air is injected into the burners. The main aim of this preheating is to save energy.
The higher the temperature of the combustion air, the higher the temperature of the flame and the lower the gas volume required to reach the same temperature. The basic idea would be to substitute a conventional burner with several injectors injecting pure gas or gas with an air excess factor of about from 0.
However, this could be never accomplished in practice, mainly due to two factors: the overheating in the point where the flame is formed and the clogging of the gas outlet due to the cracking of the gas. In order to solve the second problem, a special gas outlet can be designed and cooling water can be used all the way up to the exit etc.
But as to the localized flame overheating problem, the present invention proposes to solve it with a radiant flame surface, by dividing the flame into several smaller intermittent flames instead of concentrating the flame in a single fixed point. A controlling device, preferably a solenoid valve, but not limited to that, is inserted into each injector, so that the injectors work in rotation, responding to the signal of a programmable logic controller PLC with dedicated software.
This avoids the occurrence of localized overheatings. In FIG. This time is controlled by the programmable logic controller PLC and the interval t can be set as required. Furthermore, in order to avoid the cracking of the gas, it is possible to cool the tip of the injector by using a cooling device 18 , preferably a water jacket, or by circulating a small amount of air through the injector. This cooling system is shown in FIGS.
Similarly, in order to enhance the thermal efficiency, it is also possible to improve the cooling regions of the furnaces so as to obtain more air and higher temperatures of the air going into the firing zone by recirculating the air at the exit and by using the air recovered from the bottom of the furnace in the rapid cooling fan. This is accomplished by positioning recirculators on the ceiling at the exit of the furnace, thus considerably increasing the temperature of the cooling air.
Another possibility to increase the amount of hot air is by using preheated air instead of cold air in the rapid cooling fan. It should be noted that this air can be removed from the hot air at the exit of the furnace. It should be further pointed out that the present invention can also be implemented in roller furnaces.
Therefore, it should be understood that the subject matter of the present invention and its component parts described above are part of some of the preferred modalities and of examples of situations that could happen, however, the real scope of the subject matter of the invention is defined in the claims. The present invention refers to an improved burning system for industrial furnace burners 16 , more specifically for tunnel type furnaces for firing ceramic materials, to improve the thermal efficiency and reduce the consumption by these furnaces in the process of firing load 10 such as floor tiles, tiles, sanitary material, refractories, porcelain, insulators, grindstone, tableware ceramic, red ceramic and ceramic in general, by a using flame rotation system, providing a radiant flame surface by dividing the flame into smaller intermittent flames.
The invention claimed is: 1. A ceramic tiles and sanitary ware burning system comprising: a furnace having insulated walls and being divided into different regions with different temperatures, the different regions including a firing zone comprising at least one injector group comprising injectors, each injector defining an output tip and comprising a controlling device for independently activating each injector and being mounted in a side wall of the furnace; and.
The ceramic tiles and sanitary ware burning system of claim 1 , characterized in that the PLC comprises a dedicated software, which considers at least one of an activation time of each of one or more injectors, a deactivation time of each of the injectors, a preset time, and a sequence of the loop condition to avoid localized overheating.
The ceramic tiles and sanitary ware burning system of claim 1 , characterized in that the furnace is an industrial furnace of the tunnel type or roller type. The ceramic tiles and sanitary ware burning system of claim 1 , characterized in that the injectors inject pure gas or gas with an air excess factor between approximately 0. The ceramic tiles and sanitary ware burning system of claim 1 , wherein the fluid jacket comprises a water jacket configured for moving water through the water jacket, and wherein the injectors are configured for injecting supplied cold pure gas or supplied cold gas with an air excess factor approximately between 0.
The ceramic tiles and sanitary ware burning system of claim 1 , characterized in that the cooling device comprises an air circulator configured for moving air through the fluid jacket and wherein the injectors are configured for injecting supplied cold pure gas or cold gas with an air excess factor approximately between 0. The ceramic tiles and sanitary ware burning system of claim 1 , characterized in that the controlling device is a solenoid valve configured to respond to a signal of the PLC.
A method for controlling a ceramic tiles and sanitary ware burning system in a furnace, the furnace having insulated walls and being divided into more than three different regions with different temperatures, the burning system comprising at least one injector group comprising injector burners installed in side walls of the furnace, certain injector burners in each of the at least one injector group being activated simultaneously and such that activated injector burners are spaced at regular intervals from deactivated injector burners, each injector burner defining an output tip for cold pure gas or cold gas with an air excess factor approximately between 0.
The method of claim 8 , characterized in that each step of activating a plurality of injector burners starts with outputting a signal generated by a programmable logic controller PLC to control a temperature variance, an activation time of each of the burners, a deactivation time of each of the burners, a preset time, a sequence of a loop condition and avoid localized overheating. The ceramic tiles and sanitary ware burning system of claim 1 , further comprising an air recirculator at the exit of the furnace configured to direct air toward and through the firing zone to enhance the thermal efficiency with high temperature air feedback.
The method of claim 8 , characterized in that moving fluid through the one or more cooling devices comprises the step of moving water streaming in the one or more cooling devices and moving the pure gas or gas with an air excess factor approximately between 0.
All the contents of www. The Project envisages the development of a common methodology for the preparation, storage, dissemination and evaluation of scientific literature in electronic format. As the project develops, new journal titles are being added in the library collection. The objective of the site is to implement an electronic virtual library, providing full access to a collection of serial titles, a collection of issues from individual serial titles, as well as to the full text of articles.
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2019 Exhibitor List
The company for sale is a ceramic sanitary products manufacturing business from Poland. The company is currently not producing and waiting for a strategic international buyer to start up the production again. The company is mainly looking for an industry partner who will contribute, except for financial funds, with the sales possibilities of the products to increase the production capacity. The fixed costs of the enterprise constitute the majority of all costs.
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US9791212B2 - Burning system - Google Patents
Your favourite magazine is now available at the App Store… download today to see your first sample issue! Asian Ceramics: now for mobiles, ipads and androids. AC looks at how rising import tariffs are making the tableware industry an increasingly volatile sector and wonders how much more effect the current state of tit-fortat trade spats will have on the trading environment…. William Hunter pulls up his chair, spins the globe, and examines the relative merits — and demerits — of India and China….
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ceramic industry, in particular to production of complex additives, which can be used in production of ceramic sanitary ware, produced by slip casting. Technical result consists in increase of mobility of ceramic mass with reduced moisture content. SUBSTANCE: method of producing wollastonite-based ceramic articles includes preparing an aqueous slurry from a mixture of natural wollastonite, clay and vermiculite, moulding articles, drying and firing. EFFECT: low thermal conductivity density, high heat-resistance and chemical resistance to molten aluminium. SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of ceramic magnesian-quartz proppant intended for use as propping substances in oil or gas production by hydro fracturing. Proposed method comprises making of ceramic slurry, adding the water-soluble binder thereto, drop formation by bringing vibratory effects on laminar jet by the main frequency, solidification of drops in fixing agent in water solution and annealing. Note here that in the case of changing of slurry laminar jet rheological properties, additional vibratory effects are brought thereon at frequency pother than said main one. EFFECT: reduced moisture content of the slip while preserving its mobility and higher strength of articles.
ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products see methodology section for more details. ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth see Hidalgo and Hausmann , and explain international variations in income inequality see Hartmann et al. Countries Products. Gear cutting, grinding and finishing machines. Chloroprene chlorobutadiene rubber CR except late.
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Glossary of Ceramic Terms
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Later, in , in collaboration with chemist Nathalie Krebs , he started a ceramics workshop, which became Saxbo in , which kept making his stoneware until Over five decades, Nylund crafted some 30 reliefs and sculptures commissioned for public spaces.
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