Domestic ordinary screws were used together with imported or domestic wood to fabricate 6 screw connection specimens in wooden walls. Then monotonic loading tests were conducted and it can be concluded that, the common round screw connection strength mainly depends on the failure mode, the lack of cooperation effect significantly influences the strength of screw connections, and the dispersion of screw connection stiffness is high. So, to obtain formulae for the self-tapping screw connection strength and stiffness by further experimental study will be very necessary. Request Permissions. Zhongshan University: Natural Science, , 47 4 :
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Cooperation Pullout Test of Double Self-Tapping Screws in Wood StructuresVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Don't Screw Yourself! 3 Tips for Self Tapping Screws
Industrial fasteners are hardware that are used to hold materials together. This category is incredibly broad; over , types of hardware fall under the fastener umbrella. Across industrial and commercial settings, fasteners are used in literally thousands of applications.
They do everything from holding cars together, to connecting building structures, to securing orthopedic implants. Read More…. Ford is a leading provider of fasteners and other quality products. Ford offers self-drilling, thread-cutting and self-piercing options, in addition to EPDM washers and many other available types, serving and satisfying an impressive and valued customer base nationwide.
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Fastening Systems is your full line fastener source. With million fasteners to choose from — steel and stainless steel fasteners, brass and titanium fasteners, plastic fasteners and exotic fastener material — the choice is endless.
With one of our product lines including fasteners. Some of the many settings in which we find and use fasteners include furniture, building construction, household appliances, military and defense, automotive manufacturing, HVAC, surgery, aerospace, and security.
The tale of the fastener is, as they say, a tale as old as time. After that, the Greeks helped move the mechanics of fasteners along rapidly. In approximately BC, a Greek named Archytas of Tarentum invented the first screw threads used in the western world. Close to years later, the Greek mathematician Archimedes invented the screw principle. Along with it, he designed the first wooden water screws, which he used to remove dirty bilge water from ships and irrigate farms.
Another important early use of the screw was mechanical pressing; with it, Greeks and Romans pressed grapes and olives for grape juice and olive oil, respectively. Most of our knowledge on this comes from artifacts. For example, when excavating Pompeii, the great city that was wiped out by a volcano in 79 AD, archaeologists found that people of that time screwed together the joints of many medical instruments.
The first work to mention the screw did not come until the 1st century AD. This work was Mechanica, written by Heron of Alexandria. After that, artisans gradually began using them more and more. Examples of 15th century metal screw applications include armor assembly and clock making.
Later, Leonardo da Vinci imagined the future of fastener production when he sketched a number of screw-cutting machine designs. In , a Frenchman named Jacques Besson built his own version of the screw cutting, or screw threading, machine.
His machine screw cutter met success, and soon after, ingeniously, he designed screw cutting plates that users could attach to old lathes.
In the s, engineers and manufacturers began gaining access to technology and ideas that allowed them to begin to mechanize their machines. For example, in Antoine Thiout integrated a screw drive into the lathe, which changed them from manual to semi-automatic machines. One of the most important contributions to the industrial fastener industry was the introduction of standards organizations. For example, in the s, several people formed the US Standard Thread. Next, a group of engineers formed the Society of Automotive Engineers SAE , which continues to issue fastener standards to this day.
Early standards organizations took it upon themselves to create uniform design recommendations and quality standards, which made it much easier for consumers to get matched with the equipment they needed. For example, in the last 20 years or so, fastener manufacturers have begun using nickel-based alloy fasteners, which can withstand much higher temperatures than steel. Fastener manufacturers today have access to better equipment, better technology, like CNC machines, and more resources than their predecessors could have imagined.
Fastener supply is incredibly diverse. We expect great things from the industrial fastener industry in the future. Production Process Fabricators create the threads on threaded fasteners in many different ways.
To start, they typically inject mold plastic fasteners , and cast or heat metal ones from sheet metal. Fabricators create threads via thread rolling or thread cutting. Thread rolling a metal fastener involves cold forming the metal under pressure into the right profile. This process gives the metal better resistance to abrasion and a stronger thread. When manufacturers perform thread cutting, they simply cut the thread pattern into the blank metal. Materials Fasteners are usually made of metal, but in some applications, they are simply made of plastic.
Most metal fasteners are manufactured from steel, stainless steel, brass, bronze, or titanium. Steel is a formable, strong, and durable iron alloy. Steel fasteners are popular for use with a wide variety of applications, depending on their carbon content. Stainless steel is an extra durable alloy steel.
It is popular choice for many industries, such as automotive engineering, because these stainless-steel fasteners are strong and resistant to corrosion. Brass is a light duty alloy of copper and zinc. It is strong, corrosion resistant, and quite an attractive yellow color. Manufacturers usually use brass screws to secure decorative pieces, functional items they want to look nice, and for items to be used in or near seawater.
Bronze is another light duty copper alloy. This time, it is alloyed with zinc. Bronze alloys are ductile, lightweight, good conductors of heat and electricity, and corrosion resistant. Like brass, they have a nice color and sheen, though it can tarnish over time.
Bronze fasteners can be used for applications very similar to brass. Titanium fasteners are the number one choice for the aerospace industry because they are durable enough to be used as airplane construction fasteners.
They are also extremely lightweight and strong. Considerations and Customization When designing or assigning fasteners for their customers, fastener manufacturers consider several important variables. These include the weight that the fastener will be expected to bear, the environmental conditions, and the space limitations.
These variables help manufacturers choose and customize details like the head type, the length, the fastener material, necessary coatings, screw grade strength, and decorative components. They will also decide on threads, or lack thereof, thread texture coarse threads, smooth threads, etc. These details are all important for different reasons. First, the head type makes a difference, as a wider head offers force on a greater surface area.
Next, the correct length ensures that the fastener is flush with the surface. Third, because most outdoor applications require fasteners that will resist corrosion and ultraviolet deterioration, manufacturers must often apply protective coatings. Fourth, in machinery, manufacturers choose the strength grade that will keep the fastener from experiencing breakage or failure during operation.
Next, when a fastener is used decoratively or fastens a decorative piece, manufacturers must make sure they choose a fastener that will not expose the head. Finally, threads largely dictate how the fastener will function. For the best organization, we can divide industrial fasteners into two overarching groups: threaded fasteners and non-threaded fasteners.
Threaded fasteners are those fasteners that feature spiral ridges, called threads, on their body. Threads help them stay secure. Prominent examples of thread fasteners included nuts, bolts, screws, studs, clinching fasteners, hex bolts, self-tapping screws, cap screws, tap-end studs, double-end studs, and continuous-thread studs. Nuts are metal blocks designed to work with bolts in order to create a strong attachment between the joining surfaces.
To do so, they use internal threads that fit and hold onto the upper shaft of bolts. Bolts bolt stud fasteners , the counterpart of nuts, feature an external, partially threaded shaft.
Users push them through the workpiece and secure them on the other side with nuts. Together nuts and bolts are known as nut and bolt assemblies. Screws are an extremely broad category of externally threaded fasteners. In general, they feature a spiral shaped thread shaft and a head. Since they feature a head, they do not need any other hardware to stay in place.
Clinching fasteners , sometimes called clinch fasteners, self-clinching fasteners, or captive fasteners, are fasteners that when driven into ductile metal, deform the metal around the workpiece mounting hole. When they do so, the displaced metal cold flows into an annular recess located in the fastener pilot or shank.
Clinching fasteners contrast with those fasteners that deform when they are installed. Hex bolts are bolts that feature a hexagon shaped head. They are common for use in construction. Tap-end studs are studs that feature long threads on one end and short ends on the other.
The long end is called a nut-end. Users can round or chamfer the long end, and they can screw the short end into tapped holes. Double-end studs are those studs that feature chamfered points and threads of equal lengths on both ends. Most often, customers purchase this type of fastener for flange bolting. Continuous thread studs are studs that have no break in their threading. Rather, they are threaded continuously from end to end. Customers also often use continuous thread studs for flange bolting, though to do so, they must also use two nuts.
Non-threaded fasteners are those fasteners that do not feature threads. Without threads, they are easier to install and easier to remove.
When you are in need of fastening solutions, many people tend to restrict themselves to using more familiar products, such as the titanium hex lag bolts. However, the truth is that there are many other varieties of fasteners out there, and you only need to explore in order to find ones that are rare but which will be perfect for your needs. A good example of these are the self-tapping screws. Read More. The self-tapping screws are similar to common types of screws such as the Inconel hex head cap screw.
Self-Tapping Screws: What Are They And How Are They Used?
Especially in the fast automotive industry, where the used components have to withstand high stress, the demands on fastening technology are high. For example in the car body construction the composite design is on the increase where different materials have to be fastened securely and lastingly. In addition to one-sided accessibility, the removability of the fastener is also very important, especially with regard to recyclability. Work steps such as pre-drilling or pre-punching are no longer necessary.
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Account Options Sign in. Conseguir libro impreso. Print Reading for Engineering and Manufacturing Technology. David A. To fully understand the information found on real-world manufacturing and mechanical engineering drawings, your students must consider important information about the processes represented, the dimensional and geometric tolerances specified, and the assembly requirements for those drawings. Your students will learn step-by-step how to interpret actual industry prints while building the knowledge and skills that will allow them to read complete sets of working drawings. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
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Просто фантастическая игрушка. Едва не забыла о боли в бедре. - А как ты спала. - осведомился Орел. - Спасибо, намного лучше, - ответила Николь. - Сегодня по твоей рекомендации я спала на здоровом боку. Вчерашнее лекарство тоже в значительной мере уменьшило неудобства. Орел махнул рукой в направлении ниши с другой стороны коридора. - Не посидеть ли нам, - сказал инопланетянин. - Нужно переговорить с глазу на глаз.
Николь извлекла свою медицинскую сумку и небольшими ножницами сделала надрез с одного края опухоли. В ней оказался предмет, засеребрившийся в тусклом свете. Размером и формой он напоминал небольшую сигару двенадцати-пятнадцати сантиметров длиной и около двух сантиметров в диаметре.
Озадаченная Николь повертела предмет в правой руке, пытаясь представить, что это. На его поверхности не было никаких рельефов, он был необычайно гладок. "Вероятно, знак принадлежности к зоопарку", - решила она, когда поблизости взорвалась бомба, разбудившая спящую девочку.
Screws & Bolts
Когда Элли подняла взгляд от пола, Роберт уже достал из ящика прозрачную, облегающую голову шапочку. - Значит, ты намереваешься снять электроэнцефалограмму, - нервно проговорила она, - чтобы проверить, не стала ли я одной из. - Вопрос вовсе не шуточный, Элли.
После того как я вернулся в Новый Эдем, моя энцефалограмма сделалась странной. Причины тому ни я, ни наш невролог не обнаружили. Мой коллега утверждает, что не видел столь радикальных перемен в деятельности мозга без серьезных травм. - Роберт, - Элли вновь взяла его за руку, - когда ты покинул нас, октопауки, чтобы защитить себя, ввели в твою память микробиологический блок.
Вот тебе и причина странного вида мозговых волн. Роберт молча долго разглядывал Элли. - Тебя они похитили, - проговорил .
A2 Stainless Steel - Posi Countersunk Self Tapping Screws No.14 (5.5mm Diameter)
В самом деле. А можно ли поинтересоваться, где сейчас находится мой гениальный муж. - Ричард живет в вашем старом доме под Нью-Йорком, - ответила Жанна. - Он велел передать, что там ничего не изменилось.
К тому же, новоэдемские инженеры закончили переделывать геликоптеры. Верховный Оптимизатор полагает, что они начнут полеты над лесом через неделю-другую.
Я даже начал перепрограммировать Жанну и Алиенору. Николь глядела на мужа. Ее эмоции боролись с рассудком. Он принялся рассказывать ей план бегства.
Накамура не сумеет утаить наше возвращение, - проговорил Ричард. - Многие уже видели нас на берегу. вряд ли все они будут молчать, что бы там ни приказывал Накамура.