Plastic surrounds us. It is not just the obvious places—like water bottles and straws. It is also used to build our cars and is found in our face washes and fabrics. With the invention of plastic in the early 20th century, we became a world that relished the privilege of cheap, easy-to-produce plastic pieces.
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- What do blue whales eat?
- Human impact on marine life
- What does a walrus eat
- The state of our oceans – The damaging effects of ocean pollution
- The state of our oceans – The damaging effects of ocean pollution
- Engagement on the science-based whale review
- Krill for their fill: How climate change could affect whales and their favourite food
- Difference Between Plankton & Krill
- Website access code
What do blue whales eat?VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Why Killer Whales Are APEX Predators!
Our oceans are a marvel — alive with color, noise, drama, curious life forms, and fascinating creatures — and that is just what we know about today! Every day, scientists learn more about the wonders beneath the waves. From space, our planet Earth shines blue amidst the infinite blackness. The oceans are responsible for making conditions on Earth suitable for us to live on it.
Our rainwater, drinking water, weather systems, and climate are all ultimately provided and kept in balance by the oceans. We rely on them as a major source of the food we eat, and they produce the majority of the oxygen that we breathe. For hundreds of years, we humans have thought that our oceans were so massive, and the animals in them so infinite in number, that our actions could not possibly harm them. But we now know that this is not the case. The threats that our actions pose are significant, and they can have far-reaching effects.
Recent studies have made startling discoveries. For example, by there will be more plastics than fish in our oceans by weight. But among all the bad news, there are some success stories. With sensible management, we can undo some of the damage that has already been done. Some fish species, which had almost disappeared due to overfishing, have been successfully rebuilt, and levels of certain poisonous chemicals have fallen after global action was taken.
This guide looks at the major threats that we humans are placing on our oceans in It explores how they affect the fish and other marine life that are so vital to a healthy planet. In each chapter, we look at what can be done to protect our oceans, with tips and advice that you can personally follow to make a difference.
There is no one simple fix to these problems, but by having a greater understanding, taking small actions, and making small changes, we can all help to keep our oceans healthier and more sustainable for generations to come. This giant guide is broken down into chapters, to make it easier to find the information you are looking for.
If fishing boats catch fish from the oceans faster than their populations are able to replace themselves through reproduction, then their numbers will start to fall.
Because fish live hidden beneath the waves and can travel thousands of miles over their lives, it is not very easy to keep track of the sizes of their populations like you can with cattle or sheep on land. To make it even more difficult to manage, the oceans are so vast that it is very hard to make sure everyone is following the fishing laws. Overfishing does not just harm the species of fish that is being caught.
It also knocks the entire local ecosystem off balance, affecting the animals that the fish would normally eat and those that rely on it as their food source. Many wild fish populations have fallen, making it harder for fishers to earn enough money from their catch. Because of this and the growth in popularity of fish like salmon and trout in developed countries, there has been an increase in fish farming, or aquaculture.
This allows people to buy fish like salmon for a lower price than they could before. Although some people see fish farming as a way to provide enough fish to feed the growing human population, there are many problems linked to the industry.
From putting pressure on wild fish populations and the spread of parasites and disease to the predator control systems that affect local whale and dolphin behavior, the impacts can be far-reaching. Some fishing methods can cause harm to the ocean environments where the fish are caught. Bottom trawling, where fishing boats drag large, heavy nets along the seafloor, is one of these methods and is practiced on a huge scale all around the world.
The other two fishing methods, cyanide and blast fishing, are mostly illegal. The problem is that the countries where they are practiced have not been able to stop people from doing it. Fishers can make more money and catch a lot more fish using these methods compared to using nets or rods. Corals, sponges, and other organisms living on the seabed are either broken off, killed, or poisoned by these three fishing methods.
This makes the seabed a less safe and healthy environment for the creatures that live on it. And as air temperatures increase, so do the ocean temperatures. Although ocean temperatures do not rise as fast or as much, small differences can have big effects for the animals and plants that live in them.
Global temperatures are rising because we are producing higher levels of greenhouse gases than ever before. The oceans absorb the majority of these gases, slowly making them more acidic. This process is threatening the health of many marine creatures and putting fragile ecosystems at risk.
Go To Chapter 5. Think of all the things you use and consume in an average day. What happens when you have finished with them? We humans produce a lot of waste… And no matter where we live in the world, not all of it is managed correctly. Huge quantities of waste find their way or are actually dumped!
Go To Chapter 6. For over a hundred years, we have relied on fossil fuels for almost all our energy needs. And, we still do today! To supply this demand, oil and gas are pumped out from deep beneath the seabed and transported all around the world. Every oil reserve is limited, and eventually no more can be pumped out. This means that companies must continually search for and dig new oil wells. And as the easier locations have already been drilled, companies are looking in more remote and challenging locations to find new sites.
All the activities linked to oil and gas drilling carry serious threats to our oceans and the plants and creatures that live in them. And an accident can have fatal consequences that spread for hundreds of miles and last for decades. Go To Chapter 7. When it rains, or spring temperatures cause snow to melt, large quantities of water run off the land.
The ground and trees absorb a lot of it, but plenty still runs into rivers or storm drains and then out to sea. As the water runs over the land, it wears down the soil and carries it along for the ride. It can also pick up any nutrients, chemicals, or other wastes that were lying on the surface.
All of these polluting materials then end up being transported to our oceans. Depending on what the water carried with it, surface runoff can have different damaging effects.
Sediments can block light from reaching plants on the seabed, fertilizers and sewage can cause algal blooms, and pesticides and chemicals can poison marine plants and creatures.
Every day, thousands of species of plants and creatures manage to catch rides out of their home environments and into new ocean locations. Although most of these species will die because they are unable to cope with their new conditions, some are able to adapt well.
Too well. These species are able to spread rapidly without any natural predators to keep their numbers in check. They can then compete against local species for food and space or even develop a taste for them. This is sometimes devastating for the local habitats and fish populations and for the incomes of the fishers who rely on them. There are countless millions of boats and ships in our oceans, ranging in size from small pleasure boats to massive oil tankers.
Despite laws designed to prevent them from doing so, many of these vessels still dispose of their waste directly into the water. These wastes can contain oils, chemicals, sewage, or even foreign organisms.
And then, there is the noise of the boat as its propeller forces it through the water. These various forms of pollution affect our oceans in a number of ways. For a wide variety of reasons, sections of coastal seabeds are dug out to make the water deeper. Mostly it is done to allow boats and ships to gain access to ports and harbors. This activity kicks up a lot of dirt and debris into the water and disturbs the plants and animals that have made that part of the seabed their home.
The collected sediment then is typically dumped at sea, where it disturbs the organisms that live near the disposal location. Although most home aquariums are freshwater, there has been a recent growth in the popularity of marine reef tanks.
These tanks create a micro reef ecosystem, including colorful tropical fish, corals, and starfish. The problem is that most of these organisms are taken from wild tropical reefs and then imported to various countries to fill our tanks.
Although the trade is smaller than fishing for food, it can still be a major threat to the delicate reef environments that were the first homes of these incredible life forms. When a species or stock of fish is overfished, it means that the fish have been caught at a faster rate than the population can naturally replace itself through reproduction.
Over time, this reduces the population size. If nothing is done to stop it, then it will reach a point where there are not enough fish left to keep the population going. At this point, we would say that the species had been overfished to extinction. In Northern Europe in the Middle Ages from the 12th century, huge numbers of herring were being caught. At that time, it was said that the herring were so abundant you could almost scoop them up with your hands. Large cod fisheries were established in the seas off Newfoundland in the late 15th century.
Since those times, fishing technology, vessels, and equipment have continued to develop, allowing fishers to venture farther from their home shores to catch more and more fish. This caused some fish stocks to plummet. So much so that stocks like the Northeast Atlantic Herring and the South Atlantic Pilchard were fished almost to extinction. Although there are now more laws to protect our oceans from overfishing, about 25 percent of US fish stocks are still overfished, and 90 percent of global fish stocks are overfished or close to being overfished.
When fish are caught before they reach sexual maturity, they are unable to contribute toward repopulating their species. This makes the population less able to recover from the pressure of fishing. The age of the fish that fishers catch can be controlled by the size of the holes in the fishing gear.
Smaller holes catch smaller, and therefore younger fish, while larger holes let the small fish pass through them. Overfishing is a particularly serious problem when fish are caught deep in the ocean. Deep-sea fish and animals grow slower and reach sexual maturity later than those that live close to the surface, making them much more vulnerable to overfishing.
He has slightly different roles in each game he has appeared in, but they all revolve around his artistic ability and design skills. He is a blue walrus with two large, white tusks. He has a large. With its thick whiskers, the walrus feels around in the water for krill and on the ocean floor for shellfish. They mainly feed on molluscs as these are their favourite foods. These animals also eat various benthic invertebrates including gastropods, cephalopods, crustaceans and sea cucumbers.
Human impact on marine life
Blue whales eat krill - tiny, shrimp-like crustaceans that live throughout Earth's oceans. The huge whales can eat up to four tonnes of krill every day. Blue whales lunge through large swarms of krill with their mouths open, taking in more food in one mouthful than any other animal on Earth. Krill make up the vast majority of a blue whale's diet. The blue whale is a filter-feeder. Its throat has an expandable, pleated structure to engulf a volume of water and prey that is greater than the animal's own body weight.
What does a walrus eat
By Natalie Kikken. Whales love krill. One adult whale can eat up to 3 tonnes of krill in one day. But how will climate change affect krill numbers?
Our oceans are a marvel — alive with color, noise, drama, curious life forms, and fascinating creatures — and that is just what we know about today! Every day, scientists learn more about the wonders beneath the waves. From space, our planet Earth shines blue amidst the infinite blackness. The oceans are responsible for making conditions on Earth suitable for us to live on it. Our rainwater, drinking water, weather systems, and climate are all ultimately provided and kept in balance by the oceans. We rely on them as a major source of the food we eat, and they produce the majority of the oxygen that we breathe. For hundreds of years, we humans have thought that our oceans were so massive, and the animals in them so infinite in number, that our actions could not possibly harm them. But we now know that this is not the case. The threats that our actions pose are significant, and they can have far-reaching effects.
The state of our oceans – The damaging effects of ocean pollution
Due to the space requirements for these intelligent and dynamic animals, we do not exhibit live whales or dolphins. The sperm whale is featured in Whales: Voices in the Sea , an interactive kiosk. World wide in both hemispheres from tropical to polar ice-free waters.
The state of our oceans – The damaging effects of ocean pollution
In November , the Government of Canada announced its Oceans Protection Plan, which outlined several new initiatives aimed at addressing threats to populations of marine mammals in Canadian waters. To support this effort, Fisheries and Oceans Canada led a science-based review of the effectiveness of the current management and recovery actions for three at-risk whale populations: the Southern Resident Killer Whale, the North Atlantic Right Whale and the St. Lawrence Estuary Beluga. While Fisheries and Oceans Canada has worked with Indigenous groups, stakeholders and industry for many years to identify recovery actions for these endangered whale populations, this engagement process focused on the timely and efficient implementation of priority management actions. The three key objectives of the engagement were to:. The feedback the Government of Canada received during the engagement will inform further discussions and implementation planning for enhanced recovery efforts for these whale populations. It summarizes what was heard from:. The report summarizes the common themes that emerged in meetings, written submissions, and the online Let's Talk Whales public engagement. Participants felt that the number of whales in each of the three endangered whale populations is critically low. With some exceptions, people who participated in the online Let's Talk Whales public engagement were overwhelmingly positive about the types of actions that scientists identified to enhance whale recovery.
Engagement on the science-based whale review
Like most creatures, other than human and other animal babies who get food that others give to them, penguins find their food. In this case, food is found in the ocean, which is the penguins' main habitat. Adult penguins dine on several animals from the ocean, but mainly fish, squid, and crustaceans, like krill or rock crabs. Young penguins depend on their parents for food. While the males spend much of their time on land, either protecting the eggs or tending babies, the females are busy eating food and storing it in a special place in their body.
Krill for their fill: How climate change could affect whales and their favourite food
Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism. It is a form of chemiluminescence. Bioluminescence occurs widely in marine vertebrates and invertebrates , as well as in some fungi , microorganisms including some bioluminescent bacteria and terrestrial arthropod such as fireflies.
Difference Between Plankton & Krill
Krill and plankton are two groups of organisms found in the ocean. Krill are species of crustacean related to shrimp, and serve as a very important link in the food chain of the sea.
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