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Production product units and their components for emergency rescue operations

Production product units and their components for emergency rescue operations

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Intervention to address disasters has evolved through time into a complex policy subsystem, and disaster policy is implemented through a set of functions known as emergency management and response. Modern approaches to emergency management and response involve multidimensional efforts to reduce our vulnerability to hazards; to diminish the impact of disasters; and to prepare for, respond to, and recover from those that occur. These responsibilities present formidable challenges for governments because of the extraordinary demands disaster events impose on the decision-making systems and service delivery infrastructure of the communities they affect.

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NCBI Bookshelf. Developing energy-dense nutritional foods that can be packaged and stored for extended periods of time in environments that vary from arctic to tropical presents a challenge to the processor.

In an emergency situation these products must also meet the nutritional needs of all age groups from infants to adults, and be sufficiently palatable to be consumed for up to two weeks as the sole food. Nutrient profiles for an emergency food product EFP can and have been developed see Chapter 2 , but the required useful life of the product will be met only through careful consideration and selection of ingredients, processing techniques, and packaging materials.

Key considerations include microbiological and chemical safety, dispersability, and ease of use. The use of a few nutrient-dense products in a variety of emergencies by relief organizations such as the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the World Food Programme of the United Nations, and the International Committee of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, has resulted in anecdotal information about the desirable characteristics of such foods.

These characteristics should be taken into consideration during prototype development in order to develop a superior EFP. Historically, some of the most important emergency relief food products available in Europe, particularly the most successful one—the Norwegian BP-5—were not developed with food relief in mind. They were intended to be rations stowed in lifeboats for use in the event of passengers and crews having to abandon ship. Nevertheless, their use in the field during diverse emergencies, such as the Ethiopia and Eastern Sudan famine of to and the more recent Balkans conflicts, have permitted an evaluation of their efficacy from the standpoint of nutrition, acceptability, ease of delivery, and some practical aspects such as potential for diversion seldom discussed in refereed publications.

The following sections provide some aspects that representatives from various relief organizations urged be considered in developing specifications for the EFP. Considering that the EFP is for use at the onset of emergencies, when infrastructure destruction and security considerations make it impossible to run feeding centers, the EFP should be available in a packaging modality amenable to low-altitude airdrop as well as delivery on land.

There have been attempts to configure EFPs in ways that facilitate air delivery without damaging the product upon impact on the ground or hurting the intended recipients. Such packaging must also allow for dissemination of the product over a wide area so that it may reach many people. Past experience indicates that concentrating the drop in the form of parachuted pallets, for example, contributed to hoarding, thus defeating the primary objective of ample distribution of the food relief, and also contributed to its diversion to unintended uses.

Information provided by relief organizations indicate that the high energy content of some EFPs, the density of nutrients in them, and the ease with which they may be carried has resulted in these products being collected by military combatants in emergency situations involving armed conflict.

Biscuit-type EFPs are easily diverted to become military rations in emergencies involving armed conflict to the detriment of and even at a risk to the intended civilian recipients. The diversion is facilitated when the shape and size of the unit makes it easy to fit into the side pockets of military wear; rectangular, thin presentations seem to be best suited for this purpose.

In addition, the use of eye-catching, glittery, space-age packaging materials encourages such diversion. It has been, therefore, the consensus among representatives of several relief agencies that the shape and size of the outside package of a successful EFP should be uncomfortable to carry in military pockets and should be made of nonlustrous materials.

Furthermore, separation of the ration into smaller portions that cannot easily be rewrapped after opening also discourages diversion while aiding in apportioning the ration among children and adults. Based on information from relief organizations, other anecdotal considerations for a superior EFP are the size of the unit and the potential for reuse of the secondary package.

It is important that the size of the total unit and its breakdown into meal portions are designed so that adults can apportion it to individual sittings.

Meal-size portions should be scored to facilitate partitioning them for children. It is also important that the primary and secondary packages be able to serve additional uses in emergency situations.

For example, a combustible primary package for emergency rations has found use in various emergencies as fuel for cooking. The secondary package may also be put to good use by recipients. For example, tin cans used to package emergency rations have been used as containers for water, as storage boxes, and even as metal shingles for building roofs after being pounded flat.

In addition, from the technical standpoint, this type of secondary packaging might be very helpful in maintaining the integrity of the EFP against impact and pressure damage, insect and rodent attack, and other environmental challenges during transport, storage, and delivery.

Therefore, the secondary package for the EFP should be designed such that it could afford secondary uses to the recipients. Conventional and novel technologies were considered for manufacturing the EFP. Combining some of these technologies may be the best approach to optimize the stability of the product and preserve its nutritional and sensory qualities. Dehydration, infusion, compression, and cold extrusion are some examples of processing technologies to be considered.

These processes have been tested by the U. Army to obtain calorie-dense rations Briggs et al. A caloric density of 1. The U. Air Force General Purpose GP Survival Packet ration for aircraft and life rafts, in turn, includes a variety of compressed bars such as a shortbread bar, a chocolate chip bar, a granola bar, and a corn flake cereal bar.

This ration provides 1, kcal with 18 g of protein 5 percent of calories , g of carbohydrate 56 percent of calories , and 64 g of fat 39 percent of calories. It is designed to serve as the sole source of food for up to 10 days in a field environment, until group rations are available. Its use has in many situations been for longer—up to days were reported during the Gulf War in Feedback from Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm suggested that soldiers would consume more if their preferences were taken into account IOM, For example, the MRE bread is a pouch bread Natick Research, Development, and Engineering Center, that contains glycerol, sucrose esters, lipids, and sorbic acid to extend shelf life up to 3 years, and has received high hedonic ratings Hallberg and Chinachoti, This is now in every MRE ration.

The average equilibrium pH and water activity of this bread are 5. The bread is further preserved by controlling oxygen content and initial microbial load Hallberg et al. In an investigation to develop a high-energy biscuit for use as an EFP in disaster relief, low-moisture 3. The products were highly acceptable to sensory panels made up of children both in England and India. This shows that traditional processing methods—perhaps in combination with some of the novel MRE technologies described above—can be used to produce baked EFPs such as biscuits having desirable sensory and nutritional qualities and long shelf life.

Three aspects of water are important to consider in describing a food system: water activity a w , water mobility, and water content. Water activity is defined as the ratio of partial pressure of water in the product over that of pure water at the same temperature. The concept of a w was first put forward in the early s, as a means of explaining the availability of water for chemical and biological reactions.

It has been a useful tool in the food industry for many years and it is particularly useful when dealing with intermediate and high moisture biological systems Ruan and Chen, ; Taoukis et al. The rate-limiting step in a chemical reaction is frequently associated with the mobility of water and its ability to participate in those reactions.

At low a w , the binding of water monolayer moisture to components of the system makes it unavailable as a solvent. As a w increases, water exists in multilayers and is more mobile. Solvation and reactant mobility increase, so biological and chemical changes occur. This classic general relationship between moisture content, a w , and reaction rate was characterized over 30 years ago Labuza, Water activity is used to predict the stability of food systems and quality changes likely to occur.

However, in the past 10 years there have been numerous papers pointing out the limitations of the concept Frank, ; Ruan and Chen, ; Slade and Levine, There are practical and theoretical concerns because a w measurement assumes that the food system is at equilibrium, a condition where the partial vapor pressure above the food system is the same as that of the water within it Ruan and Chen, Since most food systems are not in equilibrium, this frequently does not hold true.

In practice, the use of a w as a means to predict product stability remains important, while the polymer science approach can be viewed as a more generalized theoretical explanation Reid, Water activity is a better indicator of food product susceptibility to spoilage than is water content.

Dried foods normally contain 2 to 20 percent moisture, corresponding to a w in the range 0. In contrast, intermediate moisture foods IMFs normally contain 15 to 40 percent total moisture and have an a w of 0.

Moisture control, mostly by dehydration, to lower the a w of the product is considered critical to attaining the required shelf life of the EFP of 2 to 3 years. The basic principle underlying drying and IMF technologies is the premise that water—the universal solvent—can become a limiting factor for spoilage and pathogenic microbial growth in foods when it is adequately reduced to low enough levels Bone, ; Davies and Birch, ; Erickson, ; Gould, ; Rahman and Labuza, This reduction in moisture content and a w is sometimes accompanied by the use of other preservation factors such as chemical preservatives e.

In the case of the EFP, moisture plays a critical role in determining microbial, sensory, chemical, and physical stability.

High-temperature, short-time extrusion cooking has been extensively applied in IMF and dried food production. Basic phenomena in extrusion cooking have been described by many Harper, , , ; Linko et al.

In an extruder, the raw food material is subjected simultaneously to heat, pressure, and shear within a short time. Desirable product functional characteristics are typically controlled by altering the feed composition and extrusion process parameters. Water is always an integral part of physicochemical processes e.

Extrusion can be applied to produce foods having various moisture levels, from dry IMF products e. This not only helps to further preserve the product from potential microbial growth and adverse enzymatic action, but also can help reduce the amount of preservatives that would be necessary otherwise. HTST processes are rapid by definition, so little destruction of vitamins or loss of protein quality are expected.

According to Harper , heat-stable B vitamins and pantothenic acid are stable under extrusion conditions. However, oxidation of ascorbic acid or carotenoids could occur, particularly in puffed products, so puffed processing is not recommended for the EFP. It may be possible to hot extrude some combination of the ingredients, such as a protein and carbohydrate mixture, and then combine it with other ingredients e.

Microencapsulation might be used for some nutrients and flavors that are mixed into a compressed bar formulation, given that most encapsulation materials are not intended for heat-processed foods. Spray coating of some ingredients after heat processing might also provide ways of incorporating heat labile ingredients during manufacturing of the EFP, as is done in breakfast cereals Caldwell et al.

Thus, the more stable vitamins might be included in the extrusion mix and others incorporated later e. The Maillard reaction leads to brown color and to the appearance of new odors and flavors. The reaction involves reducing sugars and amino acids. It is a series of reactions that start with the formation of Amadori compounds from aldose or hexose carbonyl compounds condensing with free amino groups of amino acids or protein. The condensing product is a Schiffs base that later becomes aldosylamine, and this, in turn, is converted into ketosamines in the Amadori rearrangement.

The final step involves formation of melanoidins, which are brown nitrogenous polymers or copolymers. Due to the complexity of Maillard reactions and their dependence on multiple factors e. Sugars with different degrees of reducing power greatly influence the reaction kinetics. Water also affects it in a variety of ways. For example, a concentration of solids increases the reaction rate because of a reactant concentration effect; further concentration of solids leads to a reduced rate as the reactant mobility is decreased.

In highly concentrated systems, the Maillard reaction is inhibited or retarded until, at some point, caramelization is more likely to occur than Maillard. Generally, the activation energy of the Maillard reaction increases with decreasing moisture content, suggesting that mobility retardation may be the rate-limiting factor Labuza and Saltmarch, There is an a w range where maximum Maillard reaction occurs that depends on: a the extent of the dilution effect at the high-moisture end, and b the limited mobility of reactants at the low-moisture end.

For instance, the maximum a w range in apple is 0. Unfortunately, most of the data available on reaction kinetics of the Maillard reaction is limited to a w values higher than 0. This suggests that if the EFP had an a w below 0.

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The Federal Government can become involved where it has primary jurisdiction and responsibility as well as when requests for assistance are received due to capacity limitations and the scope of the emergency. These risk factors include increased urbanization, critical infrastructure dependencies and interdependencies, terrorism, climate variability and change, scientific and technological developments e. The Emergency Management Act defines emergency management as the prevention and mitigation of, preparedness for, response to, and recovery from emergencies. Under the Emergency Management Act , the Minister of Public Safety is responsible for coordinating the Government of Canada's response to an emergency. The FERP outlines the processes and mechanisms to facilitate an integrated Government of Canada response to an emergency and to eliminate the need for federal government institutions to coordinate a wider Government of Canada response. Federal government institutions are responsible for developing emergency management plans in relation to risks in their areas of accountability.

Safety and Health Management System

This booklet provides a generic overview of a standards-related topic. This publication does not alter or determine compliance responsibilities, which are described in the OSHA standards and the Occupational Safety and Health Act. Because interpretations and enforcement policy may change over time, the best sources for additional guidance on OSHA compliance requirements are current administrative interpretations and decisions by the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission and the courts. This publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced fully or partially without permission. Source credit is requested but not required.

Unit of competency details

Recommendations for Ministry Emergency Response Plan. Municipal Responsibilities. Provincial Ministries. Federal Government. Other Organizations. The Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act the Act includes the provision that the Minister, MCSCS may formulate emergency plans respecting types of emergencies other than those arising in connection with nuclear facilities. It is an umbrella emergency response plan for the coordination of provincial response to any emergency.

These guidelines help owners and operators of industrial facilities develop Emergency Response Plans for timely and effective response to emergencies involving the release of hazardous chemicals or dangerous goods to the environment.

Unit descriptor. This unit relates to the appropriate response to emergency situations for any new workers at the workplace, possibly delivered as part of an induction program. Application of this unit. Employability Skills. Elements describe the essential outcomes of a unit of competency. Performance Criteria describe the required performance needed to demonstrate achievement of the Element. Assessment of performance is to be consistent with the Evidence Guide.

Fire fighting equipment catalog pdf

Emergency management is the organization and management of the resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies preparedness, response, mitigation, and recovery. The aim is to reduce the harmful effects of all hazards, including disasters. The World Health Organization defines an emergency as the state in which normal procedures are interrupted, and immediate measures need to be taken to prevent that state turning into a disaster. Thus, emergency management is crucial to avoid the disruption transforming into a disaster, which is even harder to recover from.

When business is disrupted, it can cost money. Lost revenues plus extra expenses means reduced profits.

NCBI Bookshelf. Developing energy-dense nutritional foods that can be packaged and stored for extended periods of time in environments that vary from arctic to tropical presents a challenge to the processor. In an emergency situation these products must also meet the nutritional needs of all age groups from infants to adults, and be sufficiently palatable to be consumed for up to two weeks as the sole food. Nutrient profiles for an emergency food product EFP can and have been developed see Chapter 2 , but the required useful life of the product will be met only through careful consideration and selection of ingredients, processing techniques, and packaging materials. Key considerations include microbiological and chemical safety, dispersability, and ease of use. The use of a few nutrient-dense products in a variety of emergencies by relief organizations such as the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the World Food Programme of the United Nations, and the International Committee of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, has resulted in anecdotal information about the desirable characteristics of such foods. These characteristics should be taken into consideration during prototype development in order to develop a superior EFP. Historically, some of the most important emergency relief food products available in Europe, particularly the most successful one—the Norwegian BP-5—were not developed with food relief in mind. They were intended to be rations stowed in lifeboats for use in the event of passengers and crews having to abandon ship. Nevertheless, their use in the field during diverse emergencies, such as the Ethiopia and Eastern Sudan famine of to and the more recent Balkans conflicts, have permitted an evaluation of their efficacy from the standpoint of nutrition, acceptability, ease of delivery, and some practical aspects such as potential for diversion seldom discussed in refereed publications. The following sections provide some aspects that representatives from various relief organizations urged be considered in developing specifications for the EFP.

MSAPMOHSA - Follow emergency response procedures (Release 1) Compare content of this unit of competency with other releases or training components This describes the essential skills and knowledge and their level required for this Assessment for this unit will be on a processing plant or in a manufacturing.

Emergency management

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Emergency Response

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Federal Emergency Response Plan January 2011

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Emergency Planning

Biologics are bacterial and viral vaccines, antigens, antitoxins and analogous products, serums, plasmas and other blood derivatives for therapeutically protecting or treating humans and animals. Bulks are active drug substances used to manufacture dosage- form products, process medicated animal feeds or compound prescription medications. Diagnostic agents assist the diagnosis of diseases and disorders in humans and animals. Diagnostic agents may be inorganic chemicals for examining the gastrointestinal tract, organic chemicals for visualizing the circulatory system and liver and radioactive compounds for measuring the function of organ system.

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Petroleum refining begins with the distillation, or fractionation, of crude oils into separate hydrocarbon groups. The resultant products are directly related to the characteristics of the crude oil being processed.

Guidelines for Industry Emergency Response Plans

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