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- 2018 Standard Occupational Classification System
- Browse by Career Cluster
- 20 Best Bachelor’s Degrees for Future Sports Management Professionals
- Sports equipment brands in india
- Marketing Intangible Products and Product Intangibles
- Fitness centre manager: job description
- Sports and the Environment: Ways towards achieving the sustainable development of sport
- Sports equipment brands in india
2018 Standard Occupational Classification SystemVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: A huge collection of Physical Education games, skills, drills & activities - Elementary PE
Distinguishing between companies according to whether they market services or goods has only limited utility. A more useful way to make the same distinction is to change the words we use.
Instead of speaking of services and goods, we should speak of intangibles and tangibles. Everybody sells intangibles in the marketplace, no matter what is […]. Everybody sells intangibles in the marketplace, no matter what is produced in the factory. The usefulness of the distinction becomes apparent when we consider the question of how the marketing of intangibles differs from the marketing of tangibles.
While some of the differences might seem obvious, it is apparent that, along with their differences, there are important commonalities between the marketing of intangibles and tangibles. Put in terms of our new vocabulary, a key area of similarity in the marketing of intangibles and tangibles revolves around the degree of intangibility inherent in both.
Marketing is concerned with getting and keeping customers. The degree of product intangibility has its greatest effect in the process of trying to get customers. When it comes to holding on to customers—to keeping them—highly intangible products run into very special problems. First, this article identifies aspects of intangibility that affect sales appeal of both intangible and tangible products. And, next, it considers the special difficulties sellers of intangibles face in retaining customers.
Intangible products—travel, freight forwarding, insurance, repair, consulting, computer software, investment banking, brokerage, education, health care, accounting—can seldom be tried out, inspected, or tested in advance. They can look at gloriously glossy pictures of elegant rooms in distant resort hotels set exotically by the shimmering sea. They can consult current users to see how well a software program performs and how well the investment banker or the oil well drilling contractor performs.
Or they can ask experienced customers regarding engineering firms, trust companies, lobbyists, professors, surgeons, prep schools, hair stylists, consultants, repair shops, industrial maintenance firms, shippers, franchisers, general contractors, funeral directors, caterers, environmental management firms, construction companies, and on and on. Tangible products differ in that they can usually, or to some degree, be directly experienced—seen, touched, smelled, or tasted, as well as tested.
Often this can be done in advance of buying. A great deal more is involved than product features and physical installation alone. Though a customer may buy a product whose generic tangibility like the computer or the steam plant is as palpable as primeval rock—and though that customer may have agreed after great study and extensive negotiation to a cost that runs into millions of dollars—the process of getting it built on time, installed, and then running smoothly involves an awful lot more than the generic tangible product itself.
If a shampoo is not used as prescribed, or a pizza not heated as intended, the results can be terrible. Packaging is one common tool. Pickles get put into reassuring see-through glass jars, cookies into cellophane-windowed boxes, canned goods get strong appetite-appealing pictures on the labels, architects make elaborately enticing renderings, and proposals to NASA get packaged in binders that match the craftsmanship of Tyrolean leatherworkers.
The significance of all this for marketing can be profound. Satisfaction in consumption or use can seldom be quite the same as earlier in trial or promise. Some promises promise more than others, depending on product features, design, degree of tangibility, type of promotion, price, and differences in what customers hope to accomplish with what they buy.
Of some products less is expected than what is actually or symbolically promised. The right kind of eye shadow properly applied may promise to transform a woman into an irresistible tigress in the night.
Not even the most eager buyer literally believes the metaphor. Yet the metaphor helps make the sale. Neither do you really expect the proposed new corporate headquarters, so artfully rendered by the winning architect, automatically to produce all those cheerfully productive employees lounging with casual elegance at lunch in the verdant courtyard.
But the metaphor helps win the assignment. Metaphors and similes become surrogates for the tangibility that cannot be provided or experienced in advance. Not even tangible products are exempt from the necessity of using symbol and metaphor.
A computer terminal has to look right. It has to be packaged to convey an impression of reliable modernity—based on the assumption that prospective buyers will translate appearance into confidence about performance. Common sense tells us, and research confirms, that people use appearances to make judgments about realities.
Everybody always depends to some extent on both appearances and external impressions. Nor do impressions affect only the generic product itself—that is, the technical offering, such as the speed, versatility, and precision of the lathe; the color and creaminess of the lipstick; or the appearance and dimensions of the lobster thermidor. Consider, for example, investment banking. So, too, with tangible products.
The reason is easy to see. In both investment banking and big boilers, becoming the designated vendor requires successful passage through several consecutive gates, or stages, in the sales process. It is not unlike courtship. But unlike a real marriage, investment banking and installed boiler systems allow no room for divorce. Once the deal is made, marriage and gestation have simultaneously begun. After that, things are often irreversible. Investment banking may require months of close work with the client organization before the underwriting can be launched—that is, before the baby is born.
And the construction of an electric power plant takes years, through sickness and in health. As with babies, birth of any kind presents new problems. Babies have to be coddled to see them through early life. Illness or relapse has to be conscientiously avoided or quickly corrected. Similarly, stocks or bonds should not go quickly to deep discounts.
The boiler should not suddenly malfunction after several weeks or months. If it does, it should be rapidly restored to full use. Understandably, the prospective customer will, in courtship, note every nuance carefully, judging always what kind of a husband and father the eager groom is likely to make.
The way the product is packaged how the promise is presented in brochure, letter, design appearance , how it is personally presented, and by whom—all these become central to the product itself because they are elements of what the customer finally decides to buy or reject. Certain conditions must be satisfied before the prospect buys.
If they are not satisfied, there is no sale. In each case, the promised product—the whole product—would have been unsatisfactory. It is not that it would have been incomplete; it just would not have been right. So much, briefly, for making a sale—for getting a customer.
Keeping a customer is quite another thing, and on that score more pervasively intangible products encounter some distinct difficulties. These difficulties stem largely from the fact that intangible products are highly people-intensive in their production and delivery methods. Corporate financial services of banks are, in this respect, not so different from hairdressing or consulting. The more people-intensive a product, the more room there is for personal discretion, idiosyncrasy, error, and delay.
Once a customer for an intangible product is sold, the customer can easily be unsold as a consequence of the underfulfillment of his expectations. Repeat buying suffers. Conversely, a tangible product, manufactured under close supervision in a factory and delivered through a planned and orderly network, is much more likely than an intangible product to fulfill the promised expectation.
Repeat buying is therefore less easily jeopardized. A tangible product is usually developed by design professionals working under conditions of benign isolation after receiving guidance from market intelligence experts, scientists, and others. The product will be manufactured by another group of specialists under conditions of close supervision that facilitate reliable quality control.
Even installation and use by the customer are determined by a relatively narrow range of possibilities dictated by the product itself.
Intangible products present an entirely different picture. Consider a computer software program. Then that same person designs the system and the software, usually alone. The process of designing is, simultaneously, also the process of manufacturing. Design and manufacturing of intangible products are generally done by the same people—or by one person alone, like a craftsman at a bench.
Moreover, manufacturing an intangible product is generally indistinguishable from its actual delivery. Though the consulting study may have been excellent, if the delivery is poor, the study will be viewed as having been badly manufactured.
So too with the work of all types of brokers, educators and trainers, accounting firms, engineering firms, architects, lawyers, transportation companies, hospitals and clinics, government agencies, banks, trust companies, mutual funds, car rental companies, insurance companies, repair and maintenance operations, and on and on.
For each, delivery and production are virtually indistinguishable. The whole difference is nicely summarized by Professor John M. Because companies making intangible products are highly people-intensive operations, they have an enormous quality control problem. Quality control on an automobile assembly line is built into the system. If the left front wheel is missing, the person next in line, whose task is to fasten the lug bolts, will stop the line. Repeat business gets jeopardized.
No matter how well trained or motivated they might be, people make mistakes, forget, commit indiscretions, and at times are uncongenial—hence the search for alternatives to dependence on people. Previously in HBR, I have suggested a variety of ways to reduce people dependence in the so-called service industries.
I called it the industrialization of service, which means substituting hard, soft, or hybrid technologies for totally people-intensive activities:. The managerial revolution. Industrializing helps control quality and cut costs. Instead of depending on people to work better, industrialization redesigns the work so that people work differently. Thus, the same modes of managerial rationality are applied to service—the production, creation, and delivery of largely intangible products—that were first applied to production of goods in the nineteenth century.
In successive waves, the mechanical harvester, the sewing machine, and then the automobile epitomized the genius of that century. Each was rationally designed to become an assembled rather than a constructed machine, a machine that depended not on the idiosyncratic artistry of a single craftsman but on simple, standardized tasks performed on routine specifications by unskilled workers.
This required detailed managerial planning to ensure proper design, manufacture, and assembly of interchangeable parts so that the right number of people would be at the right places at the right times to do the right simple jobs in the right ways.
Then, with massive output, distribution, and aftermarket training and service, managers had to create and maintain systems to justify the massive output.
For many, the perfect way to combine a passion for sport and technology is through a career in sports engineering. Sports Design Engineering concentrates on the conception, design and manufacturing of sporting equipment. Sports engineers work in nearly every sport, creating designs that meet specialised specifications to improve athlete performance, safety and sports product durability. The background our students gain in biomechanics also makes careers in medical device development and design a viable career route which is an exciting area due to the new and emerging sports and widening participation in sports for example prosthetics and guidance for partially sighted.
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The aim of the article is to identify which groups of factors economic, social, and spatial significantly determine the condition and development of the sports and recreation infrastructure of the city of Poznan and shape the needs and expectations of its residents. Standardized interviews among 39 service providers and service recipients made it possible to collect primary data on the presentation of the pace and directions of changes taking place in the sports and recreational facilities of the city, paying special attention to identifying and prioritizing factors determining this development. In order to establish the hierarchy of factors analyzed in the paper and operating within the same research problem for both groups of respondents service recipients and service providers , the Anderson-Darling test was used. The assessment made by service recipients shows that the factor having the strongest limiting effect on the use of sports and recreation services is the economic factor. In the assessment made by the respondents using their services, the efforts of city authorities to make Poznan sports clubs operate in a professional manner gained the lowest score. The results of the Anderson—Darling test show that the social factor of preparing infrastructure for the residents of the city of Poznan was the most important for the respondents, obtaining a test value of 0. The issue of determining the position and importance of sports and recreation in the development of cities and regions is unquestionable.
20 Best Bachelor’s Degrees for Future Sports Management Professionals
What does a fitness centre manager do? Typical employers Qualifications and training Key skills. Employers of fitness centre managers include health authorities, private fitness clubs, hotel and leisure groups, educational institutions and corporate fitness centres. Fitness centre managers undertake similar duties to managers of recreation and leisure centres, with responsibilities including:. The amount of contact with customers and staff varies according to the size of employer: managers in larger organisations may be mostly office based, whereas those employed by smaller establishments often have frequent contact with customers, suppliers and employees. The work can require regular long hours, evening, weekend and public holiday work.
Do you have a passion for sports and mind for business? Sport management professionals can be found in every aspect of sport including marketing, sales, finance, public relations, physical fitness, data science, and healthcare. Sport management is also a great field for entrepreneurs who want to run their own business as a freelance sport photographer or sports analyst. Other sport management professionals work in health clubs, healthcare settings, or rehabilitation facilities. While the possibilities are endless, this list should get you started in your search for the perfect career in sport management. Leisure studies graduates can be found running summer camps, managing nature parks, or leading activities in long term care facilities. Courses may include youth recreation, leadership, legal issues in recreation, program planning, and health and wellness. According to the U.
Sports equipment brands in india
In the era of digital transformation, market needs, consumer expectations and new developed behaviours influence the decision making process of short and middle term strategies. This is a challenging and continuously changing mechanism that bring companies to review their todays actions, in shorter laps, to remain updated within global industry adjustments. The goal here is clear and simple: to bring higher and exponential business performance; to acquire more positive market responses; a better understanding of own businesses and consumer developments and creating wider opportunities with higher financial rewards. But the rules of the game, in this new era, are not defined.
Everything you need to know about the classification of products. Goods or products are classified as either consumer goods or industrial goods. Consumer goods are produced for the personal use of the ultimate consumer, while industrial goods are produced for industrial purposes. There are many goods, such as typewriters and stationery can be classified as both industrial and consumer goods. Marketers have traditionally classified products on the basis of three characteristics — durability, tangibility and use. Some of the types of consumer goods are:- 1. Convenience Goods 2. Shopping Goods 3. Speciality Goods 4. Impulse Goods 5.
Marketing Intangible Products and Product Intangibles
In recent years, the sports industry has shown a good development trend. It can be seen that both the state and the industry attach great importance to the development of sports industry and its integration with related industries. Sports industry is a comprehensive industry, including sports products manufacturing industry, sports venues service industry, sports performance industry, sports fitness and entertainment industry, sports tourism and sports gambling industry and many other aspects. At present, the penetration of Internet technology into the sports industry and the use of the Internet platform by the sports industry have jointly promoted the formation of a new pattern of the current sports industry. Cross-border integration refers to cross-industry and cross-field cooperation, also known as cross-border collaboration.
Fitness centre manager: job description
This course introduces the fundamentals of American Sign Language and is designed for students with little or no previous knowledge of American Sign Language. Students will learn the basics of American Sign Language, including fingerspelling, signs, grammar, syntax, sentence structure, and basic communication skills. In addition, students will explore various facets of deaf culture. Prerequisite: ASL This course is a continuation of American Sign Language I and is designed for students who want to further develop their receptive and expressive fingerspelling and signing skills. The course builds on the basics of American Sign Language I, including fingerspelling, signs, grammar, syntax, sentence structure, and basic communication skills. In addition, students will continue to explore various facets of deaf culture. Provides the student with a broad overview of the discipline of Anthropology. The introduction presents the student with a history of the discipline. The course focuses on the basic subfields of Anthropology: Physical Anthropology, Archaeology, Linguistics, and Ethnology, the goal of which is to obtain a comprehensive understanding of humanity.
Sports and the Environment: Ways towards achieving the sustainable development of sport
Career Clusters contain occupations in the same field of work that require similar skills. Students, parents, and educators can use Career Clusters to help focus education plans towards obtaining the necessary knowledge, competencies, and training for success in a particular career pathway. Skip navigation.
Sports equipment brands in india
Today, in many countries Sport and the Environment is understood as a highly important subject. Scientists deal with this issue as well as authorities, sports associations and conservation groups. Above all, since the World Conference in Rio de Janeiro questions of lifestyle are on the agenda for the environmental debate. Sport represents a significant part of our different lifestyles and thus automatically becomes a subject of discussion.
Две недели назад в бакалее никто не заметил, что мы не взяли тележку, а потом посреди ночи нас вдруг разбудила Гарсиа, потребовавшая вернуть ее в "Не следует допускать простейших ошибок, - напомнила себе Элли.
- Никаких забытых тележек. никто не должен чего-либо заподозрить до завтрашнего дня". Дожидаясь своей очереди, Элли вновь продумывала подробности побега, которые вчера обсуждала с Патриком, Максом и Эпониной.
По-твоему, дядя Ричард, - проговорил Патрик, - выходит, что управляющий компьютер выключил один из котлов, чтобы он мог изготовить нам - Вот именно, - ответил Ричард. Макс отошел в сторонку и принялся рассматривать другие котлы, расположенные в просторном зале фабрики. Ричард и Патрик Подошли к. - Когда я был маленьким мальчиком, лет так восьми или девяти, - начал Макс, - мы с отцом впервые отправились в поход на Озаркское плато, находящееся в нескольких часах ходьбы от нашей фермы.