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Production plant seeds of trees and bushes, seeds in fruits

Production plant seeds of trees and bushes, seeds in fruits

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Issue: July 8, 2000

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How To Germinate Peach Pits and Other Stone Fruit EASY! (TCEG Episode 5) (Day 18 of 30)

Language: English Malay. Community forest development requires a constant supply of high-quality seeds. In addition, sound management of Toona sinensis surian seed sources requires a deep understanding of factors affecting seed production. This present study investigated the reproduction characteristics of surian, including flower, fruit and seed productions, variations in the productions of fruits and seeds among trees and among branches, and dendrometric factors that influence the productions of fruits and seeds.

Flower production characteristics were observed in 99 panicles, fruit production characteristics were observed in panicles, and seed characteristics were evaluated based on fruits.

The number of fruits per panicle ranged from 38 to The number of seeds in fruits ranged from 1 to Fruit size was correlated to the number of filled seeds following a quadratic regression equation.

The optimal number of filled seeds was 20 per fruit. Stem diameter, crown width, crown base height, and the number of sub-branches positively influenced the production of panicles per tree, while the crown base height of the tree negatively affected the fruit set. Pembangunan hutan rakyat memerlukan bekalan tetap benih berkualiti tinggi.

Selain itu, pengurusan sumber benih Toona sinensis surian yang baik memerlukan pemahaman mendalam tentang faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi pengeluaran. Kajian ini terutamanya bertujuan untuk mengetahui ciri-ciri pembiakan yang meliputi ciri-ciri pengeluaran bunga, buah dan benih surian, variasi pengeluaran buah dan biji antara pohon-pohon dan di antara cabang-cabang, dan faktor dendrometrik yang mempengaruhi pengeluaran buah dan benih.

Pemerhatian ciri-ciri pengeluaran bunga dilakukan pada 99 bulir, ciri-ciri pengeluaran buah diperhatikan pada bulir, dan ciri-ciri benih dinilai berdasarkan buah. Jumlah buah per bulir berkisar antara 38 hingga Bilangan biji dalam buah berjulat antara 1 hingga Saiz buah berkaitan dengan jumlah biji berisi mengikuti persamaan regresi kuasa dua. Jumlah optimum benih berisi adalah 20 per buah. Diameter batang, lebar silara, tinggi dasar silara, dan jumlah sub-cabang berpengaruh positif terhadap pengeluaran bulir per pohon manakala ketinggian dasar silara pokok berpengaruh negatif terhadap pembentukan buah.

Toona sinensis surian belongs to the family Meliaceae and is often found in community forests in West Java that are maintained and managed by farmers for various purposes. Community forest development requires a constant supply of high-quality seeds, which depends on the availability of well-managed seed sources.

The development and management of surian seed sources requires an understanding of the factors affecting their productivity, and this understanding should begin by identifying the characteristics of surian flower, fruit, and seed productions. Constraints on plant reproduction occur during all stages of the reproductive cycle. Failures in seed formation can also be caused by several factors.

Patterns in the productions of surian flowers, fruits and seeds have not been studied comprehensively until now, yet the production characteristics of flowers, fruits and seeds must be understood in order to determine the biological constraints of surian reproduction and to determine seed-source management techniques that provide optimal pollination for the purposes of seed production. In general, the present study aimed to determine the reproductive characteristics of surian, including 1 production characteristics of surian panicles, flowers, fruits and seeds, 2 the variations in the productions of fruits and seeds among trees and among branches, and 3 dendrometric factors that influence the productions of fruits and seeds.

Average monthly rainfall, temperature, and humidity in Sumedang Regency from to are shown in Figure 1. Annual rainfall values and the numbers of rainy days in the sub-districts of Wado and Cimalaka are shown in Table 1. We chose 5 forest stands containing dense surian trees in both villages. The stands were smallholder forests surrounded by dryland farming areas. These stands were agroforests surrounded by pine forests, paddy fields, and settlements.

Average values of monthly rainfall, temperature and humidity in Sumedang Regency from to Data collected from Padjadjaran Climatological Station, Sumedang, at an altitude of asl. Annual rainfall values and number of rainy days in the Wado and Cimalaka districts from to Badan Pusat Statistik , , Observations were carried out from August to May Sampling and observation cannot be performed simultaneously, as surian flowering times do not occur simultaneously among trees Pramono Observations were conducted in August , November , once a month from March to June , November , and May All actively reproducing surian trees were identified in the selected stands.

We counted the number of panicles per tree on trees that were sampled randomly and the number of flowers and fruits on 99 and panicles, respectively. The working samples used to characterise fruit traits consisted of random mature fruits collected from 20 mother trees.

To study the quantitative variations in fruit and seed productions among trees and among sub-branches, we randomly sampled 10 fruits from 4 panicles of 4 trees at Sukajadi village and 4 trees at Padasari village. To study variations in fruit numbers among sub-branches, we sampled 3 trees at Sukajadi village. From each tree, 10 fruits were taken from 3 branches, and this procedure was replicated 3 times. The diameter and length of each fruit were measured using a caliper.

The fruit coats were opened, and the numbers of empty seeds and filled seeds contained in each fruit were counted. Due to the small size of surian flowers, we did not count the number of ovules per flower; instead, in each case, we counted ovules by adding the number of filled seeds to the number of empty seeds. To study the relationship between the dendrometric variables and the production variables of individual trees, we measured trunk diameters at breast height DBH , total tree heights, crown lengths, crown widths, crown base heights, and numbers of branches for 30 trees that were sampled randomly from both areas.

The variables of production considered in this study were as follows: the number of panicles per plant, the number of flowers per panicle, the number of fruits per panicle, the number of seeds per fruit, the number of ovules per flower, each seed set, fruit length, and fruit width, and the ratio of fruit width:length. The number of fruits per panicle, the number of flowers per panicle, fruit sizes, and the number of seeds per fruit are shown in the frequency graph displayed herein.

These values were also reported as ranges, and mean values with standard deviations. Differences in the productions of fruits and seeds among plants and among branches were determined by one-way analysis of variance.

Correlation and regression analyses and scatter diagrams were used to determine relationships among the production variables. The DBH of surian trees in the study sites ranged from The number of panicles per plant varied greatly, ranging from 2 to panicles.

The number of flowers per panicle ranged from to 27, florets Table 2 , as shown by the frequency distributions in Figure 2. Surian fruit lengths ranged from Fruit width:length ratios ranged from 0.

Each surian fruit is a capsule with 5 carpels, and each carpel contains 7—8 winged seeds. The number of filled seeds per fruit varied from 1 to While most of the fruits had 16—20 filled seeds per fruit Fig. The average number of filled seeds per fruit was The filled seeds were bigger in the carpels on the side nearest the fruit stalk than in the carpels located on the farther side.

The latter also contained more empty seeds. For the Sukajadi trees studied, all fruit trait parameters, except the numbers of filled seed, showed no significant difference among trees. In contrast, all parameters significantly differed among the Padasari trees studied Table 3.

In addition, variations among some of the fruit trait parameters differed markedly among the sub-branches of a particular tree, but none of the parameters differed among the sub-branches of other trees. Analysis of variance results for fruit and seed characteristics among trees and branches. Correlations were higher for fruit width than for fruit length, indicating that the number of seeds has a stronger effect on fruit width than fruit length. For larger number of seeds per fruit, fruit sizes tended to decrease.

The remaining dendrometric variables, i. The number per panicle was positively correlated with crown length and negatively correlated with crown base height. The relationship between surian tree characteristics and the number of panicles per tree.

The relationship between surian tree characteristics and the number of fruit per panicle. Pearson correlations between surian T. The number of flowers vary greatly, from to 27, flowers per panicle, indicating that internal or environmental factors can considerably affect surian flower production. Therefore, understanding the factors that affect flower production is crucial to improving the productivity of a surian seed source.

In the present study, we found that some fruits containing 1—5 filled seeds could grow and mature. This indicates that surian flowers do not require many fertilised ovules to produce mature fruits. As opposed to the types of pollinators that bring abundant pollen but visit fewer flowers, it appears that flower-visiting insects, such as small insects, that carry less pollen, have high populations, and visit a multitude of flowers, were more beneficial with regard to surian seed sets that produce large numbers of small flowers.

The results herein showed that fruit sizes increased with increasing number of seeds; however, for numbers greater than 20 seeds per fruit, greater seed numbers correlated with smaller fruits. It is suspected that the resources required for seed settings were limited, such that, as fertilised ovules exceeded capacity, available resources were used to set higher numbers of smaller seeds. Surian fruit containing greater than 20 filled seeds also demonstrated lower seed quality, in agreement with previous studies of other species that showed positive correlations between seed size and seed or seedling quality.

Furthermore, smaller fruits raise the risk of producing poor-quality seeds because fruit size can affect seed quality. Khan et al. In addition, seeds collected from fruits containing many seeds exhibited lower vigour and survival rates than seeds collected from fruits containing fewer seeds Khan et al. Seed sets obtained from sample fruits from both villages ranged from 2.

According to a study by Ishida et al. Small pollinators with narrow flight ranges Kettle et al. The present study showed that some trees that grow alone produce fertile fruit, suggesting that surian trees may self-pollinate. When nutrients are limited, self-pollination increases embryo abortion rates Nuortila Therefore, with regard to managing surian seed sources, spacing becomes very important in order to ensure facile pollinator movement among trees. Seed set levels can also be influenced by photosynthate availability.

According to Goldsworthy , photosynthate availability is vital to seed formation. Low photosynthate availability, due to a reduced quantity of leaves, reduces seed production.

This indicates that seed set levels may be increased via crown volume enlargement and improved sunlight intensity, both of which can be obtained by improved soil fertility and plant spacing. In the present study, fruit sizes and seed productions significantly differed between trees Table 3 , suggesting that differences in conditions among trees and their interaction with the local environment affect fruit and seed production.

In addition, some production parameters differed among sub-branches on a particular tree, while these parameters did not differ significantly for other trees Table 3. This suggests that the reproductive success of surian trees were sensitive to differences in local environmental conditions.

I started my plants from a seed, but they have not produced fruit. Some one told me you have to graft them. If this is true how do you do that and what time of year and how big does the plant have to be?

If there are any trees in your area, you may have noticed that a couple of major changes come over them at the end of summer and the beginning of autumn. Branches end up laden with fruit, nuts, seed pods, and cones in preparation for seeding the next generation of trees. Fruit and nut trees are invaluable additions to any garden, and can add luscious variety and nutrition to your diet. That said, most people choose to plant fruit tree seedlings that are a few years old with good reason: standard-sized trees can take years to bear anything edible although some dwarf species can start bearing at years , and most of these trees are actually clones, wherein branches from existing trees were grafted onto rootstock. Additionally, depending on your climate, you may be able to see fruit on your own trees in as little as years: much earlier than most other fruit-bearing trees. Now, these are tricky trees to grow from seed.

Propagating Banana Plants – Growing Banana Trees From Seeds

Plants make seeds that can grow into new plants, but if the seeds just fall to the ground under the parent plant, they might not get enough sun, water or nutrients from the soil. Because plants cannot walk around and take their seeds to other places, they have developed other methods to disperse move their seeds. The most common methods are wind, water, animals, explosion and fire. Have you ever blown on a dandelion head and watched the seeds float away? This is wind dispersal. Seeds from plants like dandelions, swan plants and cottonwood trees are light and have feathery bristles and can be carried long distances by the wind.

DK Science: Seed Plants

Most plants grow from seeds. These seed plants fall into two groups, angiosperms and gymnosperms. Angiosperms are the flowering plants. Their seeds develop inside a female reproductive part of the flower, called the ovary, which usually ripens into a protective FRUIT. Gymnosperms conifers, Ginkgo, and cycads do not have flowers or ovaries.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: How To Grow Pear Trees From Seed, Days 0-34
But with peaches, nectarines and apricots, you can cut your cost to zero by growing fruit trees from seeds. Because cross-pollination between varieties produces variable results, apples and some other fruit trees are usually not grown from seeds.

Seed production is vital to the survival of plants. The plant world consists of both cone-bearing and fruit-bearing plants. These plants differ in their seed structures, leaf forms and pollination methods. Cone-bearing plants are easily recognized by their cones and needlelike leaves and fruit-bearing plants by their flowers and fruits. Cone-bearing plants are known as gymnosperms and fruit-bearing plants are termed angiosperms. A gymnosperm's seeds are open to the environment. The word "gymnosperm" means "naked seed" and the seeds are not enclosed inside fruit, but are instead exposed or on the scales of cones, like a pine cone.

An innovative way to increase the flowers, seed and fruits production

The evolution of seeds allowed plants to reproduce independently of water; pollen allows them to disperse their gametes great distances. The lush palms on tropical shorelines do not depend upon water for the dispersal of their pollen, fertilization, or the survival of the zygote, unlike mosses, liverworts, and ferns of the terrain. Seed plants, such as palms, have broken free from the need to rely on water for their reproductive needs.

Seed production and seed certification J. Other members of the drafting team were H.

Right now I'd normally be shopping for seed, compost and whatever else I might need for the growing season ahead. Not this year though - I'm gardening for free - so this'll be my first without buying in stock. On the one hand, this is really rather liberating because I know I either have, or can make enough, of everything essential that I need anyway. But at this somewhat dismal time of year with much less activity in the garden, I find my desire to seek out new varieties of fruit and vegetable seed is still firmly in place. Bartering is always a good option, and I remember my friend Alex saying I could have some of her jerusalem artichokes to plant. By a stroke of luck it turns out she also has some oca going spare, which is another interesting one for me to add to the list. In return I offer her some of the asparagus seeds I've saved along with a few of last year's soft fruit cuttings. So far so good.

Oct 6, - A new method developed at the Centre for Plant Biotechnology and A method to increase the production of flower, seed and fruit of plants.

10 Steps from Seed to Cup

A coffee bean is actually a seed. The seedlings will be watered frequently and shaded from bright sunlight until they are hearty enough to be permanently planted. Planting often takes place during the wet season, so that the soil remains moist while the roots become firmly established. Depending on the variety, it will take approximately 3 to 4 years for the newly planted coffee trees to bear fruit. The fruit, called the coffee cherry, turns a bright, deep red when it is ripe and ready to be harvested. There is typically one major harvest a year.

Growing trees from seeds: which seeds work, and which won’t

A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes , including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants. Seeds are the product of the ripened ovule , after fertilization by pollen and some growth within the mother plant. The embryo is developed from the zygote and the seed coat from the integuments of the ovule. Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and success of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants, relative to more primitive plants such as ferns , mosses and liverworts , which do not have seeds and use water-dependent means to propagate themselves. Seed plants now dominate biological niches on land, from forests to grasslands both in hot and cold climates.

In flowering plants, the female reproductive structures that produce seeds are contained within the carpels of the flower. A carpal consists of the stigma, style and ovary. The ovary contains ovules eggs that become seeds once they are fertilized.

Over time, they have been modified to have three sets of genes instead of two triploid and produce no seeds. In nature, however, one encounters many banana types with seeds; in fact, some seeds are so large it is difficult to get to the pulp. That said, can you grow bananas from seed?

A scientist from UPM has developed a method to enhance crop yield by the contact of roots, aerial parts or even the substratum of the plant fungus, 'Colletotrichum tofieldiae'. A new method developed at the Centre for Plant Biotechnology and Genomics CBGP UPM-INIA has shown that, via the contact of a plant with a strain of the Colletotrichum tofieldiae microorganism previously isolated, this plant can increase the number, size or weight of its seeds, fruits and flower. This discovery has been protected by patent, and its implementation could lead to cost savings and to lower environmental impact since this fertilizing system represents an alternative to the mineral fertilizers used so far.

Language: English Malay. Community forest development requires a constant supply of high-quality seeds. In addition, sound management of Toona sinensis surian seed sources requires a deep understanding of factors affecting seed production. This present study investigated the reproduction characteristics of surian, including flower, fruit and seed productions, variations in the productions of fruits and seeds among trees and among branches, and dendrometric factors that influence the productions of fruits and seeds.

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