The value chains are very diverse, and a number of different players actively participate in these chains, which ultimately decide the destination of citrus fruit in these supply chain s. Knowing all these facts, the main aim of this research is to identify different value chains of citrus fruit Kinnow in Pakistan and also to identify and discuss the role and function of different value chain players in the citrus industry in Pakistan. Using a convenience sampling technique, a total of respondents were interviewed during a period of 4—5 months from three leading citrus-producing districts. It was found that citrus value chains can be classified into two major types: unprocessed citrus value chain and processed citrus value chains. It was also found that in the past, a large number of citrus growers were involved in preharvest contracting for their orchards and only a small number of citrus growers sold their orchards directly into local and foreign markets.
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Production of citrus fruits by type in India 2014-2018
The value chains are very diverse, and a number of different players actively participate in these chains, which ultimately decide the destination of citrus fruit in these supply chain s. Knowing all these facts, the main aim of this research is to identify different value chains of citrus fruit Kinnow in Pakistan and also to identify and discuss the role and function of different value chain players in the citrus industry in Pakistan.
Using a convenience sampling technique, a total of respondents were interviewed during a period of 4—5 months from three leading citrus-producing districts.
It was found that citrus value chains can be classified into two major types: unprocessed citrus value chain and processed citrus value chains. It was also found that in the past, a large number of citrus growers were involved in preharvest contracting for their orchards and only a small number of citrus growers sold their orchards directly into local and foreign markets. The proportion has been gradually changed now and growers are becoming progressive and more market oriented.
Agricultural Value Chain. A number of agricultural resources, fertile land, well-irrigated plains and variety of seasons are favourable for the Pakistan agricultural industry.
Despite the decline in the share of agriculture in gross domestic production GDP , nearly two-thirds of the population still depend on this sector for their livelihood [ 1 ].
Agriculture is considered as one of the major drivers of economic growth in the country. It has been estimated that in —, the total production of agriculture crops was million tonnes. Pakistan produces about In —, the total fruit production was recorded at 7. The area under all fruits and production both has been increasing gradually. Citrus fruit is prominent in terms of its production followed by mango, dates and guava. The total citrus production was 2. Citrus fruit includes mandarins Kinnow , oranges, grapefruit, lemons and limes, of which mandarin Kinnow is of significant importance to Pakistan.
Although there is no remarkable increase in area under citrus production, the production has increased up to In —, Pakistan produced 1.
The production of citrus fruit has been increasing since —; however, it started to decline in The citrus fruit crop requires a critical low temperature for its ripening which if not achieved may lead to decline in the production of fruit [ 4 ]. Therefore, one of the reasons of varied citrus fruit production might be due to the temperature variations in the citrus growing areas of Pakistan.
Such a great variation in temperature was recorded in — in citrus-producing areas due to which citrus production dropped from 2. Among all four provinces, Punjab is considered to be the hub of citrus production. Source: [ 7 , 8 ]. Sargodha, Toba Tek Singh and Mandi Bahauddin are three known districts for their citrus production in Punjab province.
Different varieties of citrus fruits are also grown in small proportions in other districts. Punjab province, being the hub of citrus production Kinnow , produced In the late s, the production of citrus fruit in the Baluchistan province increased and it was due to the increase in the area under citrus cultivation and hence production under citrus fruit was increased in Baluchistan in the late s [ 3 , 6 , 9 ].
In Punjab province, Kinnow production was 1. In Punjab, Kinnow was Oranges come next to Kinnow in production and area under cultivation and constitutes 4. Grapefruit production is the lowest and it was only 3 thousand tonnes.
The consumption of fresh citrus fruit in developing countries has been increasing; however, it is still low compared to the developed countries. In Pakistan, per capita consumption of citrus fruit is almost static since except in when it dropped to 7. The rapid increase in the population may be one of the major factors keeping the consumption level nearly constant despite the increase in citrus production from 1.
However, the sharp decline in per capita consumption in was a result of lowest production of 1. There was an increase in per capita consumption in Brazil that reached to the highest level in and then dropped very sharply in and With the changing consumer preferences towards consumption of fresh and convenience food, the global demand for fresh fruit is increasing [ 8 , 13 ].
Pakistan is one of the largest citrus producing countries and ranked 13th in the production of citrus fruit [ 5 ]. The majority of the farmers in Pakistan own and cultivate a small size of agricultural land of less than 2 hectare. However, in Punjab, average citrus farm size was The size of citrus orchard ranges from less than 1 hectare to as big as 65 hectare in different regions of the country.
A few large citrus growers do exist; however, small and medium size growers are the majority [ 16 ]. Like other fruits, citrus fruit value chain is primarily controlled by the private sector. However, Government plays a facilitative role by providing basic infrastructure and regulatory measures for easy business transactions. It is generally observed that marketing intermediaries exploit agricultural crop producers by charging high margin on their investment [ 16 ].
Citrus fruit value chain s starts with the involvement of pre-harvest contractor directly with citrus growers. The role of each player in the citrus value chain is presented later in the results and discussion sections. All the players involved in these value chains execute their usual functions as they do in other food value chains; however, the pre-harvest contractors are the most important powerful player in Pakistan citrus value chains [ 15 , 16 ].
Keeping in mind the increase in production, constant domestic consumption and available surplus of citrus fruit for export, a number of questions arises; how many different citrus value chains operate in the country? Who are the players involved in the citrus value chains? Despite the availability of citrus fruit, why only a small amount of citrus fruit is being exported?
To answer these questions, this study aims to identify and analyse different value chains of citrus fruit Kinnow that are operating in Pakistan and also to identify and discuss the role and functions of each value chain players in the citrus industry in Pakistan.
Furthermore, this study identifies future opportunities and challenges of citrus sector in Pakistan. Both qualitative exploratory and quantitative descriptive and inferential research methods were used for this study depending upon the research questions. Primary data were collected through surveys, while secondary data were obtained from published documents, reports, journals and government publications of various public and private institutions and departments.
Using a convenience sampling technique, a total of respondents were interviewed during a period of 4—5 months from three leading citrus producing districts, namely Sargodha, Toba Tek Singh and Mandi Bahauddin. Due to unavailability of population size sampling frame , time and budget constraint, a convenient sampling technique was used for the selection of the respondents.
The underlying reason of interviewing different players in the citrus value chains was to study closely their functions and participation in different existing value chains. It also helped identifying and understanding different value chains operating in the country.
This study also identified future opportunities and challenges of citrus sector in Pakistan. The results of this study revealed that citrus Kinnow value chains can be classified into two major types: unprocessed citrus Kinnow value chain and processed citrus Kinnow value chain.
The description of these value chains is presented in the next section. Unprocessed citrus Kinnow graded and packed before selling to the local market and does not include usually washing and waxing. Citrus growers, pre-harvest contractors, local provincial commission agents, inter-provincial commission agents, local wholesalers, inter-provincial wholesalers, local and inter-provincial retailers are different actors of unprocessed citrus Kinnow value chain in Pakistan.
The major players of the unprocessed citrus Kinnow value chain are citrus growers and pre-harvest contractors and their marketing strategies intensely affect the citrus supply chain in the country. The predominate reasons include unavailability of finances, lack of market information, ease of the transaction, avoiding the future price fluctuations and norms of the business [ 15 ].
Citrus growers are becoming more market oriented and adapting different marketing channels to get high price for their products instead of selling solely to pre-harvest contractors. The improved education level, government support and technological developments are the reasons for this change.
One of the citrus growers replied when asked about direct marketing of his fruit in the market:. Being ignorant of different market prices in the past, we were unable to decide where to sell, hence carried out with the pre-harvest contractor.
Kinnow processing is of two types: 1 for export and involves washing, waxing, grading and packing and 2 for juice extraction. In —, the major exports of Kinnow mandarin were to Afghanistan , tonnes , Russian Federation 72, tonnes and United Arab Emirates 68, tonnes. A complete list of countries is attached in Appendix A [ 17 ]. The processed citrus value chain and unprocessed citrus value chain are nearly similar except Kinnow processing factory, and exporters are involved in processed value chain at the end stage of the process.
Citrus growers, pre-harvest contractors and commission agents sell citrus fruit directly to factories Kinnow processing and exporters. Pre-harvest contractors and some commission agents act on behalf of these Kinnow processors and exporters and purchase citrus fruit for them.
These agents are provided with some credit or advance payments to buy citrus fruit. A good family and financial background, market reputation and ability of constant supply of fruit in the season are the qualities of sellers preferred by these Kinnow processors and exporters.
Sellers to processors and exporters are paid through cheques. In Sargodha, about Kinnow processing factories are functioning but only 25—30 processing factories are exporting citrus to different countries. The reasons of such a low export from the country include high demand for seedless Kinnow hybrid mandarin in the developed countries not produced in Pakistan , marketing practices and failure to meet the quality certification standards.
One of the respondents who wanted to export to European countries commented:. Realising the quality, I decided to export my fruit to Europe last year but I was told that I should grow citrus to meet quality certification standards required for export which I am following now.
A few processing units are also being constructed in other districts as well, for example, district Mandi Bahauddin, district Toba Tek Singh and district Multan. A total of 52 fruit processing and juice extraction factories are operating in Pakistan [ 18 ]. Only five of them are processing citrus fruit for juice extraction. These factories are concentrated in the major citrus producing areas such as Sargodha, Bhalwal and Mateela cities.
Citrus growers and pre-harvest contractors sell mostly drop off, low quality and non-marketable fruit to these juice factories, which process it into juice concentrate and sell it to different retail shops and supermarkets in the country.
However, these exporters and processors only purchase selective fruit from me and leave small size, non-uniform and unripe fruit. Different players of citrus Kinnow value chain including citrus growers, pre-harvest contractors, commission agents, wholesalers and retailers are described and discussed below. The results of this study revealed that majority of the citrus growers It was reported that the literacy rate was increasing in the citrus growing areas in Pakistan, thus providing basis for the growth of citrus growers and making them more market oriented [ 19 ].
The size of these citrus orchards was further reduced when the orchard was divided among the next generations. Due to better government policies in the education sector and increasing market awareness, the level of literacy rate has increased in the last 10 years.
All citrus growers were educated and became aware of market information and opportunities. As citrus growers are becoming more market oriented, they are searching for reliable market information to find alternative value chains other than selling directly to pre-harvest contractors.
Exporters and processing factories usually announce citrus fruit purchase price per 40 kg for the season.
Additional Information. Show source. Show sources information Show publisher information. Per capita consumption of fresh fruit in Spain in , by type. This feature is limited to our corporate solutions.
INDUSTRIAL CITRUS JUICERS
The Citrus Industry: Crop protection, postharvest technology, and early history of citrus research in California. Walter Reuther. Geographical Distribution of Citrus Pests. StylommatophoraSnails and Slugs.
Citrus Industry in Brazil with Emphasis on Tropical Areas
Like all citrus plants, the orange tree originated in Asia. The exact site of its appearance is hotly debated. Nevertheless, citrus fruits are said to have emerged in the east of Asia in the lands now belonging to India, China, Bhutan, Burma and Malaysia. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: How to Harvest Orange ? - Orange Juice Processing & Orange Factory
Citrus fruits are the highest-value fruit crop in terms of international trade. There are two main markets for citrus fruit :. Oranges account for the majority of citrus production but the industry also sees significant quantities of grapefruits , pomeloes , lemons , and limes. While the origin of citrus fruits cannot be precisely identified, researchers believe they began to appear in Southeast Asia at least 4, BC. From there, they slowly spread to northern Africa , mainly through migration and trade. During the period of the Roman Empire demand by higher-ranking members of society, along with increased trade, allowed the fruits to spread to southern Europe. Citrus fruits spread throughout Europe during the Middle Ages , and were then brought to the Americas by Spanish explorers. Worldwide trade in citrus fruits didn't appear until the 20th century and trade in orange juice developed as late as Total production and consumption of citrus fruit has grown strongly since the s.
Chemistry and technology of citrus juices and by-products
Industry-specific and extensively researched technical data partially from exclusive partnerships. A paid subscription is required for full access. You need a Premium Account for unlimited access.
Some varieties of citrus fruit are produced in practically every county in the State; the commercial crop, however, is confined largely to the central and south portions. Types range in order of commercial importance as follows: oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, limes, lemons, and kumquats. To those must be added a number of hybrids of increasing importance to the industry. Florida orange shipments have increased from , boxes for the season to 19,, boxes for the season Grapefruit shipments increased from 12, boxes during the seasons to 16,, boxes for the season This was Florida's heaviest citrus production year. Shipments to market usually begin in September and extended through July. Citrus in north and northwest Florida is largely confined to the production of the Satsuma orange. Florida ranks first in the United States in the production of grapefruit; second in the production of oranges, and first in the production of tangerines. Florida Citrus Estimate Total production of Florida citrus for the season of is estimated at 25,, boxes, of which 15,, are oranges, including tangerines, and 10,, boxes grapefruit.
Production volume of citrus fruits in Europe 2018
The basis for these projections is a spatial equilibrium model of the world citrus market developed at the University of Florida and modified by expert opinion, and other citrus outlook studies. World citrus production and consumption have grown strongly since the mid - s. Production of oranges, tangerines, lemons and limes has expanded rapidly, and even faster growth has been realized for processed citrus products as improvements in transportation and packaging have lowered costs and improved quality. Rapid expansion of production and slower demand growth for oranges and grapefruit, however, has resulted in lower prices for both fresh and processed oranges and grapefruit. The rate of new plantings has slowed, and projected growth rates in both production and consumption over the next ten years are expected to be lower than those realized over the last ten years. With expected continued growth of clementine consumption, Spain is expected to expand its production of tangerines mainly clementine varieties. China is also expected to expand production and consumption of oranges and tangerines. Other Latin American producing countries such as Argentina, Mexico, Cuba, Belize and Costa Rica are expected to continue to expand production, but at a slower rate.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Commercial citrus fruit are produced in about countries. Sweet oranges are the major fruit grown and represent approximately 70 percent of the citrus output. Four states, Florida Florida produces very few lemons. China is another major orange juice producer. Fresh market oranges bring much higher returns per acre than juice processing oranges. Mandarin production is concentrated in China, Japan, and other Asian countries, but high quality export fruit is produced in South Africa, Spain, and other countries of the Mediterranean Basin.
Citrus is one of most important horticultural industries in NSW with a production area of around 13, hectares. The main citrus fruits grown in NSW are navel and Valencia oranges, mandarins, lemons, limes and grapefruit. NSW Department of Primary Industries DPI has the largest citrus research and extension team in Australia and plays a leading role in supporting the NSW and Australian citrus industry with its substantial research, extension and information capacity.
Citrus Fruit Processing offers a thorough examination of citrus—from its physiology and production to its processing, including packaging and by-product processing. Beginning with foundational information on agricultural practices, biology, and harvesting, Citrus Fruit Processing goes on to describe processing in the context of single-strength juices, concentrated juices, preserves, and nutrition. New technologies are constantly emerging in food processing, and citrus processing is no different. This book provides researchers with much-needed information on these technologies, including state-of-the-art methodologies, all in one volume.
Citrus utilized production for the —19 season totaled 7. California accounted for 51 percent of total U. Grapefruit utilization in Florida, at 4. Bearing citrus acreage, at , acres, is 13, acres below the —18 season.
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