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Food/BeverageVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: The Journey: Wheat into Flour - Part 1
The cheese Klila occupies a very important socio-economic place established in the rural and peri-urban environment. It is a fermented cheese produced empirically in several regions of Algeria.
It is the most popular traditional cheese and its artisanal manufacturing process is still in use today. The cheese obtained is consumed as it stands, fresh, or after drying. When dried, it is used as an ingredient after its rehydration in traditional culinary preparations. In this review, we expose the main categories of traditional Algerian dairy products; we focus mainly on the traditional Klila cheese, its history, origin, and different manufacturing stages.
We recall the different consumption modes and incorporation of Klila cheese in the culinary preparations. In Algeria, the consumption of dairy products is an old tradition linked to livestock farming, since dairy products are made by means of ancient artisanal processes, using milk or mixtures of milk from different species [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ].
These products also differ in their taste and their consistency. It is the most popular traditional cheese and its artisanal manufacturing process is still in use today [ 4 , 5 , 6 ].
When dried, it is used as an ingredient after its rehydration in traditional culinary preparations [ 7 , 8 ]. Sheep and goat milks were apparently the first processed milks, and sheep and goats have been the first domesticated animals [ 10 ]. The discovery of utensils and containers used in cheese making during the numerous archaeological excavations that took place around the world, and in particular in Egypt, Mesopotamia, or in the Mediterranean basin, has given evidence of the very ancient use of these fermentations.
Cheese was already a popular food item during the Greek and Egyptian eras [ 11 ]. It is thanks to the Romans that the art of making different types of cheese was developed [ 9 ]. Cheese making is the oldest known way of preserving milk [ 12 , 13 , 14 ]. Man has noticed that the milk he was storing coagulated and that once it is separated from its serum whey , the coagulum becomes a compact mass that could dry and thus be preserved and transported [ 10 , 15 ].
The spontaneous acidification is causing the coagulation and giving rise, because of its slowness, to the cream on the surface; fermented milks, butter, and dry cheese were probably the first dairy products.
Contrary to popular belief, Algeria does have well-established traditions of manufacturing dairy products even if the activity is limited to the domestic sphere. The traditional dairy products, with strong cultural, medicinal, and economic value, are the historical product of the social and economic dynamism of the rural communities of women [ 16 ]. Despite their anchoring in the Algerian culinary tradition and their ability to exploit the natural resources of disadvantaged regions animal and plant species of mountain and Saharan ecosystems , these products evolve on the margins of implemented development policies in Algeria.
The great majority of them are being downgraded by the markets through the emergence of dairy processing industries oriented more towards the satisfaction of the major urban markets, in subsidized milk and dairy products, than towards the valuation of local milk production [ 17 ]. Many traditional products are vanishing for various reasons, including lack of feed availability, rural exodus, and changing dietary habits.
Those ones, whose use is most widespread, such as Rayeb and Jben , and while keeping the same name, have changed their technological process because of their industrialization [ 18 , 19 ].
The different types of Algerian traditional dairy products are shown in Fig. Lipid globules appear on the surface and are recovered at the end of churn [ 20 , 21 ]. The fresh butter obtained has a soft consistency due to the high concentration of water [ 19 ]. It is also made in Middle Eastern countries and is known as Zobdeh [ 22 ]. Smen is a fatty milk derivative popular in the Maghreb countries, notably Algeria [ 21 ] and Morocco [ 23 ]. The butter is then boiled and clarified after the addition of a clarifying agent for example, crushed dates and skimming after flocculation of the impurities.
It is used by the Tuaregs Algerian Sahara people for the preparation of food or for cosmetic purposes [ 24 ]. Fermentation has been associated with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria belonging to the genera Leuconostoc and Lactococcus naturally present in raw milks [ 18 , 26 ].
It comes from a laborious treatment of goat skin or sheep skin. The fat particles then agglomerate together, to form grains of butter [ 18 , 21 , 26 , 30 ]. The fat particles then agglomerate together, to form grains of butter [ 21 ].
This choice was not made at random; on the mountainous and rigid soil of Kabylie grow trees and plants including the calabash. This slightly exotic fruit, rigid and empty from the inside, serves as a traditional churn in Kabylie. The manipulator must shake vigorously, and then add small amounts of hot or cold water depending on the ambient temperature, so as to bring the temperature of the set to a level suitable for collecting the grains of butter.
Cheese is the largest and most diverse group of dairy products. Traditional cheeses are cultural goods that deserve to be studied, characterized, and protected [ 28 , 34 ]. Some cheeses are known, made, and eaten to the present day, while others are unfortunately endangered for various reasons, namely the unavailability of fodder, the rural exodus, and the change in food habits.
Traditional Algerian cheeses are distributed into four main categories, namely fresh cheeses, ripened cheeses, processed cheeses, and hard cheeses. Jben is traditionally made in the Maghreb countries; denomination gathers very different technological trajectories, resulting in products with very varied characteristics [ 17 , 18 ].
The whole flowers are macerated in the milk. The plant is used to accelerate the coagulation and to give a taste to the cheese. The plant variety used varies from one region to another; it gives a taste and a texture appreciated by the people of the concerned region.
The curd is then drained and salted or not, according to the tastes. Additives can be added after draining and salting garlic, parsley, pepper, etc.
Finally, a third technological process, using animal rennet, cow milk, and acidifying starters, is industrially used. The curd formed is cut to continue draining and then is consumed as it is. Aghoughlou is cheese made in Kabylie, obtained from fresh cow or goat milk coagulated by the fig tree latex Ficus carica. The curd obtained is eaten fresh. It can be considered as a fresh soft cheese. The process begins with heat treatment of the milk to boiling.
The whole is heated a second time until coagulation and separation of curd and whey. The curd is separated from the whey by filtration, first through a kitchen sieve and into a fine fabric muslin , and then suspended and allowed to drain until complete the elimination of the whey.
Generally, this step can last overnight to ensure that the drip is complete, then the pressing is done [ 37 ]. The cheese is obtained back and kept in cool glass containers. It is coagulated by vegetable or animal rennet and is also made from cow and camel milk.
Due to the high demand for this cheese, it is increasingly produced by small factories in semi-industrial processes to be sold both in traditional markets and in some supermarkets of northern Algeria [ 17 ].
It is a Tuareg cheese similar to cottage cheese served in small portions and eaten fresh or dried. The heating is done in a clay container until the precipitation of the caseins. The cheese is then sun-dried, crushed, and can be mixed with date paste or with beverages [ 19 ].
The curd obtained is removed using a ladle and deposited and kneaded on mats containing fennel stems giving it a particular taste. In its dehydrated form, it can be kept for several years at room temperature, in terracotta jars or goatskin bags [ 5 , 40 ]. This is a traditional, soft-ripened cheese from the eastern regions of Algeria Oum El Bouaghi, Khenchela, Batna… once famous because of an important practice of extensive goat and sheep farming. Illustrative global diagram of the manufacturing processes of the main Algerian dairy products and traditional cheeses.
Men proceeded to milk mammals; it is probably during the attempts to store the surplus milk that appeared the first curds that will later become cheese. Since then, people, as well as nations, have not stopped furthering the process.
Not claiming a paternity of cheese in any case, nations codify, regulate, and protect their cheese specialities. In spring, when the grass is high enough to feed the livestock and give a good milk production, the raw milk is left to itself, at room temperature, until its spontaneous coagulation. Crushed, it is used as a condiment in the cooking of the nomads who also consume it when on a trip by letting it melt under their tongue.
It remains one of the strongest assumptions. These data require confirmation by historians specialized in the history of indigenous Berbers and North African nomads.
Traditional cheeses enjoy a special place among various food preparations. Their manufacturing tradition encompasses not only the know-how of the different generations but also an intimate marriage between the environment and dairy animals, hence the need to preserve this tradition in its natural atmosphere.
Each traditional cheese comes from complex systems that give it specific organoleptic characteristics. The different elements which establish the typicality of each cheese are related to various biodiversity factors, such as the environment, the climate, natural grassland, the breed of animals, the use of raw milk and its natural microflora, the cheese technology based on the unique expertise of men and not on automated technology, historical tools, and finally the natural conditions of ripening.
The families that make this cheese are essentially indigenous Berbers. From studies of Guetouache and Guessas [ 8 ] and that of Benamara et al. In rural areas, milk is abundant during periods of high lactation. For lack of means of preservation, it is difficult to keep the excess of this quickly perishable food; the main part of the production is therefore transformed into cheese. In spring, which corresponds to the period of high lactation and milk abundance, milk is collected in milking vases Fig.
Milking vase: used to collect milk during the period of high lactation and milk abundance in spring [ 21 ]. It is quite an art to grab the butter: the Berber woman engages her entire arm inside the skin bag put on the ground.
She exerts a series of pressures from the bottom up which have the effect of getting the clots of butter in suspension to the orifice where she seizes them.
The curd is then churned, cooked, and squeezed lightly. It is eaten fresh or dry. This product was traded by the Saharan Nomad tribes in the Tell markets [ 4 ]. However, for the feeding of caravans, goat cheese, dry and hard as stones, were produced. In some tribes, they crush and mix it with cereal flour, all diluted with milk or water [ 21 ]. This period of time was marked by under consumption of meat, which was very rarely cooked but in ritual festivals such as births, circumcisions, and marriages.
Protein intake was mainly provided by dairy products and sheep fat used to prepare couscous broths. Bellakhdar described the dietetics of nomads of the Sahara; as regards diets, they use high-calorie foods, which are easy to keep and available and occupying small volumes to reduce the burden of walkers, children, and riders [ 20 ]. They carried objects easily transportable in malleable bags that could support without damage high temperatures.
These are dry foods pounded with wood mortar or ground with a stone: cereal grind, dry cheese powder, crushed dates, etc. Foods participate in different preparations that require no cooking. Virtually, all the time, the Berbers use very energetic and low-weight food and know how to make the most of the natural desiccation that their climate operates during the hot season [ 20 , 46 ]. Over the past decades, cheese has gained increasing commercial importance in the food industry because of its use as a food ingredient.
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What Is Semolina?
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Food Manufacturing on a Mission
Long gone are the days of growing, raising, and curing your own food for most modern Americans. Yet, processed food is not a new practice or standard by any means. Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have discovered that the earliest recognized form of alcohol in the world has been predated to having existed around 7, BCE. The foods Americans think of as processed foods, however, entered the food supply in as trans fats flooded the market. Common items such as hot dogs, candy bars, boxed macaroni and cheese, cake mix, soda, and TV dinners introduced consumers to the power of cooking convenience from through
What if the sugared products cannot be produced continuously? Fried or Sugared, which to be first? How can I approach the Southeast Asian market? The manufactures in China had been created by brothers from Taiwan. Focus on the production of snacks such as sweets, pastries, sachima, chocolate and jelly pudding. The sales and market share have always ranked first in China. CE certified, reasonably priced food processing machinery are industrial fryers, oil heating systems, seasoning tumblers, liquid mixer machines, liquid sprayer machines, etc. TSHS has been offering customers high-quality food processing machines for green peas, nuts, potato chips, grain puffs and corn puffs, with total snack foods solutions. They represent trust, specialty, high-quality and safety specialization, which is where their name TSHS came from.
Food Operations - Introduction to Bakery
The cheese Klila occupies a very important socio-economic place established in the rural and peri-urban environment. It is a fermented cheese produced empirically in several regions of Algeria. It is the most popular traditional cheese and its artisanal manufacturing process is still in use today. The cheese obtained is consumed as it stands, fresh, or after drying.
Bakery can extend into past years of history. Romans first came with the art of baking and due to globalization it spread worldwide. Baked foods are healthy, tasty, and flavorful. They are in demand on special occasions such as weddings, parties, and social feasts. Baking is a manner of cooking food by exposing it to direct heat or heated stones for long time under controlled temperature. Baking is not just limited to cakes, breads and biscuits but practically a wide range of sweet and savory foods such as pies, cookies, tarts, Baati Indian baked bread consumed in North-West region , Rodgaa Indian baked bread consumed in east Maharashtra region of India , and snacks can be baked. Baked food often comes up with aromatic food. Its variants are self-rising flour, wheat flour, all-purpose flour, cake flour, etc.
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Case Studies in Food Engineering
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There are several carrageenans, differing in their chemical structure and properties, and therefore in their uses. The carrageenans of commercial interest are called iota, kappa and lambda. Their uses are related to their ability to form thick solution or gels, and they vary as follows. Elastic gels formed with calcium salts.
Food Crop Production by Smallholder Farmers in Southern Africa: Challenges and Opportunities for Improvement evaluates traditional cultivation practices used by smallholder farmers, providing a synthesis of the latest information on increasing crop yield through adoption of research innovations. The book catalogs smallholder cultivation practices and recommends innovative strategies for improving the agriculture sector including: management practices that reduce net carbon emissions; technologies that improve soil structures and conserve the natural resources base; means of empowering female resources along value chains; and government commitment to adopt policies that enhance agriculture productivity by encouraging farmers to use environmentally sound cultivation technologies. Traditional farming techniques often produce negative impacts on the environment and ecosystem resulting in outbreaks of diseases and pests. This book presents enhanced agricultural production technologies for ensuring adequate food production, safety and nutritional quality for the population of Southern Africa and forms the basis for an increased SADC regional effort in food production through which financial and trade institutions can improve stakeholder capacities, encourage micro-enterprise development and enhance employment and regional trade.
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Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains , roots , beans , nuts , or seeds. It is used to make many different foods. Cereal flour is the main ingredient of bread , which is a staple food for most cultures. Wheat flour is one of the most important ingredients in Oceanic , European , South American , North American , Middle Eastern , North Indian and North African cultures, and is the defining ingredient in their styles of breads and pastries.