This essay was posted initially on Ensia. You can drive from central Pennsylvania all the way to western Nebraska, a trip of nearly 1, miles, and witness it in all its glory. No other American crop can match the sheer size of corn. The main reason is that corn is such a productive and versatile crop , responding to investments in research, breeding and promotion. It has incredibly high yields compared with most other U. Plus, it can be turned into a staggering array of products.
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- SESSION I (contd.)
- It’s Time to Rethink America’s Corn System
- Processing maize flour and corn meal food products
- Agro-industrial wastes and their utilization using solid state fermentation: a review
- 10 Ways We Use Corn
- Looking for other ways to read this?
- Products from corn
- Waste not, want not: Byproduct of ethanol industry makes suitable cattle feed supplement
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SESSION I (contd.)VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Maize Matter: Cultivation of a Corn Husk Composite
Although recognized as important sources of functional compounds, milling by-products are often removed from the cereal kernel prior milling process. Indeed, the high presence of fiber in bran and the co-presence of lipids and lipase in germ are often considered as downsides for breadmaking.
In this work, Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10 and Weissella confusa BAN8 were used as selected starters to ferment maize milling by-products mixtures made with heat-treated or raw germ and bran. The effects on the biochemical and nutritional features as well as the stability of the milling by-products were investigated.
Lactic acid bacteria metabolisms improved the free amino acids and peptides concentrations and the antioxidant activity and caused a relevant phytic acid degradation. Moreover, fermentation allowed a marked decrease of the lipase activity, stabilizing the matrix by preventing oxidative processes.
The use of fermented by-products as ingredients improved the nutritional, textural and sensory properties of wheat bread. According to the results, this study demonstrates the potential of fermentation to convert maize bran and germ, commonly considered food wastes, into nutritive improvers, meeting nutritional and sensory requests of modern consumers.
The average daily intake of fiber in many populations is still lower than those recommended Stephen et al. Indeed, numerous physiological effects have been highlighted, i. Fortification of a staple food, i. However, it is needed to be able to produce healthy, fiber-rich bakery products with an appealing texture and taste.
Optimal diet rich in fiber refers at the same time to the right amount and a suitable balance between them. The production of multi-grain products makes it possible, providing more variety in breads and increasing the diversity in fermentable soluble fiber Lopez et al. The need for food companies to produce dietary fibers-enriched as well as low-calorific foods to meet the consumers requirements, is leading to investments in allocating resources in innovative foods developments.
In this scenario, several scientific researches have been carried out aiming at substituting wheat flour in bread formulations Sivam et al. Bran, the outer layers of cereal grains, is rich in dietary fiber as well as other bioactive compounds and germ is usually characterized by a high nutritional value Katina et al. However, despite to the positive effects on health, the presence of high content of fiber in bran and lipase and lipoxygenase activities in germ may negatively affect the baked goods quality.
Indeed, use of native bran in wheat baking is a technological challenge because of the detrimental effect of bran on the gluten network and subsequent textural attributes of bread Noort et al. While, the lipase and lipoxygenase activities determine the poor and unstable sensory properties of baked goods made of wheat flour containing the germ Paradiso et al. However, lipases are sometimes used in bakery industry as emulsifiers to increase the bread volume, soften the crumb as well as retarding bread staling Frauenlob et al.
Thermal treatments can be used to inactivate the enzymes, however, collateral negative effects on the bioactive compounds, i. Therefore, a careful selection of process to pre-treat milling by-products need to be done.
Lactic acid bacteria LAB have already been proposed as a promising tool to overcome the sensory, structural, functional and nutritional drawbacks related to their use as ingredients in bread-making Katina et al. Maize Zea mays is a domesticated grass that originated in what is now Mexico. Nevertheless, due to the processing wastes and the preparation of non-food products, the use of these cereals is lower than what estimated Ranum et al. Milling by-products bran and germ , which contain most of the bioactive compounds, are often removed from the kernel prior processing thus causing a loss of nutritional quality Ranum et al.
In this study, selected LAB were used to ferment raw- and heat-treated milling by-products from maize, investigating the effects of the fermentation on their stabilization biochemical and nutritional properties. Based on the above considerations and aiming at increasing the fiber content of wheat bread valorizing food processing wastes, fermented and unfermented mixtures of maize germ and bran were used as ingredients to fortify wheat breads, evaluating biochemical and nutritional characteristics, structural properties and sensory profiles.
Aiming at investigating a wide microbial diversity, starters were selected among LAB strains Supplementary Table S1 previously isolated from matrices with different chemical composition and sharing either most of the functional compounds and anti-nutritional factors with maize milling by-products.
In detail, LAB strains belonging to the Culture Collection of the Department of Soil, Plant and Food Science University of Bari, Italy were previously isolated from raw or spontaneously fermented wheat, quinoa, hemp, hop, and wheat germ Rizzello et al.
Aiming at selecting strains to be used as mixed starter for maize milling by-products fermentation, the pro-technological and functional features of LAB were evaluated when singly inoculated in their own isolation matrix wheat, quinoa, hemp and hop flours and wheat germ.
Non-inoculated doughs were used as controls. Proteolytic by means of total free amino acids TFAA , phytase and radical scavenging in the methanolic extract activities were considered as functional features, however, kinetics of growth and acidification were considered as pro-technological traits.
Kinetics of growth and acidification were determined and modeled in agreement with the Gompertz equation, as modified by Zwietering et al.
The experimental data were modeled by the non-linear regression procedure of the Statistica The values of pH of doughs were determined by a M. The supernatant was used for the determination of TFAA concentration and phytase activity. Phytase activity was determined by monitoring the rate of hydrolysis of p -nitrophenyl phosphate p-NPP Sigma, The p -nitrophenol released was determined by measuring the absorbance at nm Rizzello et al.
The radical scavenging activity was determined on the ME methanolic extract ME of doughs. The supernatants MEs were transferred into test tubes, purged with nitrogen stream and stored at ca. The radical DPPH. The synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene BHT was included in the analysis as the reference 75 ppm. The reaction was monitored by reading the absorbance at nm.
Based on the results collected under the above conditions, the two best performing strains, Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10 and Weissella confusa BAN8, were selected and used as a mixed starter for sourdough fermentation of maize milling by-products. Commercial samples of maize milling by-products, certified for mycotoxins levels aflatoxins, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, and fumonisin under the thresholds defined by Reg.
The heat-treatment was carried out at ca. Proximal analysis of the milling by-products prior doughs preparation was carried out. Microbiological analyses were carried out on milling by-products as specified below. Doughs g consisting of milling by-products mixtures and water were obtained by an IM 58 high-speed mixer Mecnosud, Flumeri, Italy.
DY was Doughs were inoculated with L. TTA is expressed as the amount ml of 0. WSE from fermented and un-fermented doughs were used for the determination of organic acids, peptides, TFAA concentrations and radical scavenging activity. The quotient of fermentation QF was determined as the molar ratio between lactic and acetic acids. TFAA were analyzed as reported above. For the peptides analysis, WSE were treated with trifluoroacetic acid 0. Then, peptides concentration was determined by the o -phtaldialdehyde OPA method as described by Church et al.
All analyses were carried out in triplicate. As reported by Lin et al. The concentration was determined as described by Slinkard and Singleton and expressed as gallic acid equivalent. The radical scavenging activity was determined as reported above. Experimental breads DY, were manufactured at the pilot plant of the Department of Soil, Plant and Food Science of the University of Bari Italy , according to the two-stage protocol commonly used for sourdough breadmaking Rizzello et al.
The characteristics of the flour Triticum aestivum , cv Appulo used were the following: moisture, Salt was not used. All breads were cooled for a period of 2 h on cooling racks at room temperature prior analysis.
The values of pH and TTA, concentration of organic acids, TFAA, total phenols and phytic acid and radical scavenging activity were determined as reported above. The specific volume and moisture content of breads were measured determined according to the approved methods AACC Fermentations were carried out in triplicate and each bread was analyzed twice.
The in vitro protein digestibility IVPD of breads was determined by the method proposed by Akeson and Stahmann with some modifications Rizzello et al. Samples were subjected to a sequential enzyme treatment mimicking the in vivo digestion in the gastro intestinal tract and IVPD was expressed as the percentage of the total protein which was solubilized after enzyme hydrolysis.
The concentration of protein of digested and non-digested fractions was determined by the Bradford method Bradford, The analysis of starch hydrolysis was carried out on breads.
The procedure mimicked the in vivo digestion of starch De Angelis et al. The degree of starch digestion was expressed as the percentage of potentially available starch hydrolyzed after min. Sensory analysis of breads was carried out by 10 trained panelists 5 male and 5 females, mean age: 35 years, range: 18—54 years , according to the method described by Haglund et al.
After a roundtable discussion about the attributes, 13 were selected as the most frequently recognized by all the members of the panel. These were included in a score sheet for the quantitative evaluation with a scale from 0 to 10, with 10 the highest score.
Besides, the typical aroma of a fermented dough was evaluated. According to the IFST Guidelines for Ethical and Professional Practices for the Sensory Analysis of Foods, assessors gave informed consent to tests and could withdraw from the panel at any time, without penalty or having to give a reason. Similarly, wide increase of the phytase activity was found among the LAB strains, with highest and lowest values reached when L. Highest value of radical scavenging activity According to the pro-technological features, W.
Moreover, both L. Figure 1. Boxplot showing the functional A and pro-technological B characterization of strains of lactic acid bacteria belonging to the species Lactobacillus brevis , Lactobacillus curvatus , Lactobacillus helveticus , Lactobacillus farciminis , Lactobacillus nantensis , Lactobacillus plantarum , Lactobacillus rossiae , Lactococcus lactis , Pediococcus acidilactici , Pediococcus pentosaceus , Weissella cibaria , Weissella confusa , Leuconostoc citreum , and Leuconostoc mesenteroides of the Culture Collection of the Department of Soil, Plant and Food Science of the University of Bari, Italy and isolated from raw or spontaneously fermented wheat, hemp, hop, quinoa, wheat germ and bran.
The top and the bottom of the box represent the 75th and 25th percentile of the data, respectively. The top and the bottom of the bars represent the 5th and the 95th percentile of the data, respectively. Based on the above results, L.
The proximal composition and microbiological characterization of RG, TG and B used in this study are reported in Table 1. The heat-treatment led to a TG having moisture four times lower than RG. Although B was also subjected to heat-treatment, its moisture was As expected, RG and TG contained high level of fat up to ca. Table 1. Proximal composition and microbiological characterization of the maize raw RG and heat-treated TG germ and bran B. Acetic acid was not detectable in any of the sample prior the fermentation.
As expected, after 24 h of fermentation with L. Similar trend was found for acetic acid.
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It’s Time to Rethink America’s Corn System
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Processing maize flour and corn meal food products
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Expansion of biobased industrial production in the United States will require an overall scale-up of manufacturing capabilities, di versification of processing technologies, and reduction of costs. The development of efficient ''biorefineries" that integrate production of numerous biobased products would help reduce costs and allow biobased products to compete more effectively with petroleum-based products. The development of new or improved low-cost processing technologies will largely determine which biobased products become available. Currently, certain processing technologies are well established while others show promise but will require additional refinement or research before they come into practical use.
Although recognized as important sources of functional compounds, milling by-products are often removed from the cereal kernel prior milling process. Indeed, the high presence of fiber in bran and the co-presence of lipids and lipase in germ are often considered as downsides for breadmaking. In this work, Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10 and Weissella confusa BAN8 were used as selected starters to ferment maize milling by-products mixtures made with heat-treated or raw germ and bran. The effects on the biochemical and nutritional features as well as the stability of the milling by-products were investigated. Lactic acid bacteria metabolisms improved the free amino acids and peptides concentrations and the antioxidant activity and caused a relevant phytic acid degradation. Moreover, fermentation allowed a marked decrease of the lipase activity, stabilizing the matrix by preventing oxidative processes. The use of fermented by-products as ingredients improved the nutritional, textural and sensory properties of wheat bread. According to the results, this study demonstrates the potential of fermentation to convert maize bran and germ, commonly considered food wastes, into nutritive improvers, meeting nutritional and sensory requests of modern consumers. The average daily intake of fiber in many populations is still lower than those recommended Stephen et al.
Agro-industrial wastes and their utilization using solid state fermentation: a review
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10 Ways We Use Corn
Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search. Springer Shop Amazon. Vasso Oreopoulou , Winfried Russ. The single-most important task of food scientists and the food industry as a whole is to ensure the safety of foods supplied to consumers. Recent trends in global food prod- tion, distribution, and preparation call for increased emphasis on hygienic practices at all levels and for increased research in food safety in order to ensure a safer global food supply. The ISEKI Food book series is a collection of volumes where various aspects of food safety and environmental issues are introduced and reviewed by scientists speci- izing in the?
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Agricultural residues are rich in bioactive compounds. These residues can be used as an alternate source for the production of different products like biogas, biofuel, mushroom, and tempeh as the raw material in various researches and industries. The use of agro-industrial wastes as raw materials can help to reduce the production cost and also reduce the pollution load from the environment. Agro-industrial wastes are used for manufacturing of biofuels, enzymes, vitamins, antioxidants, animal feed, antibiotics, and other chemicals through solid state fermentation SSF. A variety of microorganisms are used for the production of these valuable products through SSF processes. Therefore, SSF and their effect on the formation of value-added products are reviewed and discussed. Agricultural-based industries produced the vast amount of residues every year. If these residues are released to the environment without proper disposal procedure that may cause to environmental pollution and harmful effect on human and animal health. Most of the agro-industrial wastes are untreated and underutilized, therefore in maximum reports it disposed of either by burning, dumping or unplanned landfilling. These untreated wastes create different problems with climate change by increasing a number of greenhouse gases.
Products from corn
The increase in human population in Europe over the last decades has influenced greatly the demand for food products of animal origin. In consequence this requires a considerable development of animal production. The main interest in this paper is focused on the monogastric animal, mainly swine and poultry.
Waste not, want not: Byproduct of ethanol industry makes suitable cattle feed supplement
This Encyclopedia of Agrophysics will provide up-to-date information on the physical properties and processes affecting the quality of the environment and plant production. It will be a "first-up" volume which will nicely complement the recently published Encyclopedia of Soil Science, November which was published in the same series.
Making a living raising cattle isn't as simple as just buying a herd and turning it out to pasture. Cattle require specific diets to maintain proper nutrition and weight gain.
Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm.