This invention relates to an improved process and system for making dehydrated potato products, that uses less water and produces less waste water than conventional processes. Potato flakes and potato granules are the most common types of dehydrated potato products. As the names imply, potato flakes have a crystal-like shape, while potato granules have a granular shape. Both potato flakes and potato granules can be rehydrated i.
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This invention relates to an improved process and system for making dehydrated potato products, that uses less water and produces less waste water than conventional processes.
Potato flakes and potato granules are the most common types of dehydrated potato products. As the names imply, potato flakes have a crystal-like shape, while potato granules have a granular shape. Both potato flakes and potato granules can be rehydrated i. Various processes for making potato flakes and potato granules, are well known in the art. An object of most prior art processes is to provide flakes or granules that can be rehydrated to make a potato product that has the flavor and texture of fresh cooked potatoes.
Initially, fresh potatoes are washed, peeled, sliced and optionally rinsed. The precooking step gelatinizes starches within the potato cells, preferably with minimal swelling and bursting of the potato cells, such that retrogradation can take place during a subsequent cooling step.
The bonds formed between the potato cells will thus be preserved during subsequent cooking and drying steps, and the reconstituted finished flake will have a reduced stickiness.
One type of steam cooker includes a screw conveyor which moves the potato slices through a steam chamber containing live steam. Following cooking, the cooked potato slices are riced to form a potato mash. Next, additives are added to the potato mash. Representative additives include solutions of sodium bisulfite for retarding non-enzymatic browning, and emulsions of a monoglyceride emulsifier, antioxidants and various chelating agents.
Following the additive step, a drying step is performed on the potato mash, typically with a drum dryer. Following drying, the potato sheet can be comminuted into potato flakes using a comminuting apparatus such as a hammermill.
Initially raw potatoes are washed, peeled, sliced, precooked, cooled, cooked, riced and additives added substantially as previously described. During a mash mixing step hot cooked potatoes are mixed with dry add back granules until a homogeneous moist mix is obtained. Following mash mixing, a conditioning step equalizes the moisture throughout the mix, which is then passed over a fine mesh vibrating screen to remove large agglomerates and bruised portions of potato tissues.
The product is then further mixed, and dried using a drying apparatus such as an air lift drier, or a fluidized bed drier. Both of the above described processes for making potato flakes and potato granules have been used in the art since about the s.
Over the years various processes have been proposed in which the above fabrication processes are modified. Representative processes are described in U. Most new fabrication processes are directed to improving the flavor and texture of the rehydrated potato product. The present invention is also directed to a process for making potato flakes and potato granules in which a primary object is improved flavor and texture in the rehydrated potato product.
However, another factor not generally considered by prior art fabrication processes is the large quantities of water that are required during various steps of the processes.
As water resources come under increasing pressure, potato processors must compete with urban, agricultural, industrial and recreational interests for the available water rights. In addition, the water rights are expensive, which adds expense to the dehydrated potato products.
Besides requiring large quantities of water, prior art fabrication processes produce large quantities of waste water. Waste water is typically produced in all steps of the fabrication processes but drying. The precooking and cooling steps in particular, produce large quantities of waste water e.
The waste water from these steps also contains high concentrations of organic material. Recently, potato processors have been experiencing difficulties in disposing of the large quantities of waste water produced by conventional potato fabrication processes.
In the past, waste water has been disposed of by application to farmland at a rate approved by the Department of Environmental Quality. However, regulations and restrictions on the amount of waste water that can be applied to farmland have changed. Thus, it has become difficult, if not impossible, to dispose of the large quantities of waste water produced by potato fabrication processes. Another problem with conventional disposal methods is that the waste water can contaminate ground water used for municipal and rural water supplies.
Also, decomposing organic material in the waste water produces by-products, such as methane gas, that can affect air quality. The odor from decomposing waste water is a particular concern for processors located in close proximity to municipalities. In addition, the waste water can adversely affect crops by saturating the ground with too much water, particularly in wet years.
In view of the foregoing, the present invention is directed to a process and system for making dehydrated potato products in which water usage and waste water production are substantially reduced. In accordance with the present invention, an improved process and system for making dehydrated potato products, such as potato flakes and potato granules, is provided. In a first process embodiment the process is used to make potato flakes.
The process includes the steps of washing, peeling, and slicing raw potatoes to form potato pieces. The potato pieces are then precooked by placing the raw potato pieces in a process chamber of a steam cooker-vacuum cooler.
The steam precooking step minimizes damage to the potato cells, and leaching of flavor components from the potato cells. Also, any effluents from the precooking step can be collected from the process chamber, and added back, or retained in a subsequently formed mash. As an alternative to precooking with steam, the precooking step can be performed using microwave energy. Following precooking, the slices are vacuum cooled.
By using vacuum cooling, the cooling step can be controlled to retrograde starches and strengthen the potato cell walls, while minimizing leaching of flavor components from the potato cells by contact with water. For some applications vacuum cooling can be performed using the same process chamber as in the precooking step.
Alternately, rather than vacuum cooling, the cooling step can be performed using a chiller or a cooler. Following cooling, the slices are cooked using steam.
Steam cooking can be performed using a steam cooker, or alternately in the same process chamber used in the precooking and cooling steps. As an alternative to steam cooking, the cooking step can be performed using microwave energy. Following cooking, the cooked slices are riced to form a potato mash.
Additives, such as emulsifiers, antioxidants, flavorings and color stabilizers, can then be added to the mash. In addition, effluents from the precooking step can be added back to the mash.
The potato sheets are then comminuted using a hammermill, or other suitable comminuting apparatus to form potato flakes. The above steps can be performed using a continuous process. With the process of the invention, water usage and waste water production are substantially reduced. A significant reduction in water usage and waste water production results from performing the precooking step using steam or microwave energy, rather than hot water in liquid form, as in conventional processes.
Additional reductions result from performing the cooling step using vacuum cooling, rather than cool water in liquid form, as in conventional processes.
The process of the invention also minimizes damage to the potato cells, and leaching of flavor and texture components from the potatoes by prolonged contact with water in liquid form as in conventional processes. Also, with steam precooking and vacuum cooling steps, effluents from the precooking step can be added back to the mash to improve flavor and texture in the finished product.
The resultant potato flakes have a rehydrated potato flavor and texture that are comparable to, or superior to, potato flakes made using conventional processes. In a second embodiment, potato granules rather than potato flakes are produced. The granule process can include washing, peeling, slicing, precooking, cooling, and cooking steps, performed substantially as previously described.
Following the cooking step, mash mixing, conditioning, screening, mixing, partial drying and final drying steps can be performed as with a conventional granule fabrication process. A system for performing the process includes conventional washing, peeling, and slicing apparatuses.
The system also includes a steam cooker-vacuum cooler with a process chamber for precooking and cooling the potato slices, a steam cooker with a screw conveyor for cooking the potato slices, and a ricer for ricing the cooked slices to form a mash.
In the first process embodiment flakes the system also includes a drying apparatus e. In the second process embodiment granules , the system also includes a mash mixing apparatus, a conditioning apparatus e. Referring to FIGS. Initially, raw uncooked potatoes 12 are received from the field or storage and are sorted. Sorting may be accomplished using inspection tables not shown or other sorting mechanisms that are known in the art. In addition, the potatoes 12 can be washed and scrubbed using a scrubbing apparatus Washing and scrubbing substantially removes adhered dirt and peels the potatoes One suitable scrubbing apparatus is referred to as a "scrubber" and is manufactured by Van Mark of Iowa.
Optionally, the potatoes can be steam peeled using a peeler, such as one manufactured by Odenburg of Germany. Next, the washed and scrubbed potatoes 12 are fed into a slicing apparatus 16 to form potato slices The slicing apparatus 16 can comprise a commercial vegetable slicing and dicing apparatus, such as one manufactured by Urschel Laboratories Inc. A representative thickness of the potato slices 18 can be from about 0. Following slicing, the potato slices 18 can be transferred to holding tanks for further processing and optionally rinsed, using a rinsing apparatus 20, to remove excess starch.
In the illustrative system 10, the slicing apparatus 16 deposits a monolayer of raw potato slices 18 on an endless, moving, conveyor belt 22, and the slices 18 are rinsed as they move past the rinsing apparatus However, as is apparent to those skilled in the art, other arrangements are possible. Following the rinsing step, the potato slices 18 are loaded into a steam cooker-vacuum cooler apparatus The steam cooker-vacuum cooler apparatus 24 performs the precooking step, and also the subsequent cooling step.
One suitable steam cooker-vacuum cooler apparatus 24 is manufactured by Stephan u. The steam cooker-vacuum cooler apparatus 24 includes a process chamber 26 wherein the potato slices 18 are loaded. In the illustrative system 10, loading and unloading of the potato slices 18 into the process chamber 26 is a batch process accomplished using techniques that are known in the art. For illustrative purposes the process chamber 26 is illustrated with an inlet 30 for receiving the potato slices 18 and an outlet 32 for discharging the partially cooked potato slices 18PC.
However, in actual practice the potato slices 18, and precooked potato slices 18PC, may be received and discharged from the process chamber 26 using the same opening.
Optionally, the precooking step may be a continuous process which employs screws, conveyors, or other mechanisms for moving the potato slices The process chamber 26 includes a steam inlet S IN in flow communication with a source of steam S at a desired temperature and pressure.
The process chamber 26 also includes a steam outlet S OUT for exhausting spent steam. This arrangement permits live steam to be continuously injected into the process chamber 26 at a desired temperature and pressure, and spent steam to be continuously exhausted, to provide desired cooking parameters e.
Using the steam cooker-vacuum cooler apparatus 24, the precooking step can be controlled to minimize damage to the potato cells, and to minimize leaching of flavor components from the potato cells by contact with water.
Also water usage is substantially reduced as compared to conventional processes that employ hot water in liquid form to precook the potato slices. Similarly using the steam cooker-vacuum cooler apparatus 24, waste water from the precooking step is substantially eliminated.
Heat and Control recently experienced an IT security incident that has impacted portions of our network and disrupted our business operations. We help you offer your customers better products by engineering and building customized process and packaging lines featuring start to finish integration. Our solutions set the standard for yield, efficiency, and safety across a wide range of food, pharmaceutical, and other industries. Whatever your production needs, we can meet them with precision and passion. We design equipment specifically for bakery food products, such as bagels, donuts, breakfast pastries, fruit-filled pies, cookies, crackers, and pretzels.
Swancote finds success in added value
As the industry dramatically changed over the last few years we have drawn on our extensive knowledge of potato handling, dating back some 30 years, and have now emerged as a fully fledged design and manufacturing business. Our core business is based around producing highly innovative machinery to service the potato and root crop market. Currently we now supply our range of products into more than 15 countries around the world through our dealer network. All our machinery is designed by ourselves in 3D, in our CAD office and manufactured in our new workshops. Scotts Precision Manufacturing Ltd. The end of a very busy day here at the NEC Birmingham. A big thank you to everyone who came to say hello and to our staff for making everyone welcome.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
Equipment is selected for the complete process line and all the equipment are manufactured on technical know-how from Sweden as per their design, standards, and technology. All process equipment are fabricated in stainless steel, except for the standard parts such as the motors, gearboxes and such components. All electrical components, motors, modular plastic belts, pumps etc. The dryer is fitted with five 5 spreader rolls, oscillating knife holds, pneumatic knife adjustment, ribbon types feed screw, vapor duct with blower and variable speed drive. Potato Flakes. You Want. We Offer.
This invention relates to the manufacture of French fries and in particular to French fries suitable for oven reconstitution. The manufacture of French fries tend to follow a basic process of peeling, cutting, blanching in hot water or steam, drying, frying and freezing or chilling. This process as disclosed in U. In the 's a new market was found in the retail trade for non-fried, ovenable french fries as is described in U. In the 's another market was developed for microwaveable french fries as is disclosed in U. The process comprises parfrying the potato strips under controlled time and temperature conditions to include two parfrying steps with an intermediate cooling step wherein the strips preferably are frozen to reduce the moisture content of the strips in accordance with a predetermined relationship of strip size, strip surface area, and moisture loss during processing. Potato strips prepared in accordance with the invention have been found to reconstitute with substantially optimum taste, color, and textural characteristics irrespective of the method of reconstitution. Pre-sliced potatoes are subjected to a first parfrying step, a first freezing step, a thawing step following the first freezing step, a second parfrying step and a second freezing step following the second parfrying step. The frozen potatoes may be reconstituted by microwave heating just prior to consumption. When potato products are fried, a chemical reaction takes place, known as Maillard's Reaction, on the surface of the product.
Potato Processing and Uses
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Hui, a technology consultant, presents material on frozen food science, technology, and engineering, describing the manufacture, processing, inspection, and safety of frozen foods. He outlines basic procedures for optimizing the quality and texture of frozen foods and includes and tables and examples that illustrate the effects of various chemical and biochemical reactions on the quality of frozen food. The book details methods for selecting the most appropriate packaging materials for frozen foods, and provides guidelines on ensuring product safety. Handbook of Frozen Foods. Murrell , Wai-Kit Nip. CRC Press , Principles of FreezeConcentration and FreezeDrying. Principles of Frozen Storage. Frozen Food Packaging. Frozen Food Components and Chemical Reactions.
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Red River Valley red, yellow potatoes see millions in damages
Potato chips often just chips , or crisps in British English , are thin slices of potato that may have been deep fried or baked until crunchy. They are commonly served as a snack , side dish , or appetizer. The basic chips are cooked and salted ; additional varieties are manufactured using various flavorings and ingredients including herbs , spices , cheeses , other natural flavors, artificial flavors , and additives. Potato chips form a large part of the snack food and convenience food market in Western countries. This accounted for
Food Processing Handbook. James G.
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And the necessary experience to develop special frying machinery for your product. By mastering heat technology, any product can be deep-fried. Equipment for deep-frying potatoes, pellets, snacks, nuts, corn nuts, tortilla chips, doughnuts, or custom machinery for other deep-fried products. Easy-to-clean, low maintenance machines.
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