The potato is a root vegetable native to the Americas , a starchy tuber of the plant Solanum tuberosum , and the plant itself, a perennial in the family Solanaceae. Wild potato species can be found throughout the Americas, from the United States to southern Chile. In the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia , from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex, potatoes were domesticated approximately 7,—10, years ago. Potatoes were introduced to Europe from the Americas in the second half of the 16th century by the Spanish. Today they are a staple food in many parts of the world and an integral part of much of the world's food supply. As of , potatoes were the world's fourth-largest food crop after maize corn , wheat , and rice.
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Success StoryVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: 35 SUPERB FOOD HACKS THAT WILL DEFINITELY SURPRISE YOU
In between, in the silent 50s, television conveyed the dominant image of women as homemakers in such programs as The Donna Reed Show and The Loretta Young Show. Still, the TV image of the role of women is only half the story. Many women worked out of need; for others, rising affluence and leisure freed women from household chores. In either case, women sought laborsaving devices: machines to ease drudgery and new products to simplify life. Convenience foods — aimed at making food preparation easier and quicker — became commonplace.
The interest in convenience foods merged with a change in eating habits as rising incomes meant consumers could afford more expensive foods, such as meats and fresh leafy green vegetables. This threatened many staples of the American diet such as the potato, worsening the chronic problem of overproduction.
Potatoes were hardly the only crop plagued by surpluses and lower prices for producers. As early as Congress had responded by creating four regional research laboratories within the Department of Agriculture; each was charged with finding new markets and uses for regional farm commodities. Much of the chemical engineering work at the ERRC has focused on finding ways to convert perishable commodities into stable and convenient forms. By the s a multidisciplinary team of chemists, chemical engineers, and food technologists at the ERRC zeroed in on the potato, attempting to reverse the decline in U.
Declining potato consumption coupled with increased consumer demand for convenience foods prompted the search for ways of extending the shelf life of potatoes. Ultimately, two processes emerged for producing dehydrated mashed potatoes: granules and flakes.
Granules were developed first, but while they have a long shelf life, they do not re-hydrate quickly, limiting their usefulness as a convenience food. Eskew and chemical engineers James Cording, Miles J. Willard, and John Sullivan. Because the starch gelatinizes at this point, the potatoes are not sticky when reconstituted; in fact, stopping the pre-cook at the point of gelatinization is critical for preserving cell structure.
After the pre-cook, the potatoes are then cooled to stop the cooking process and further harden the cells.
Cooks have long known that cooling cooked, starchy vegetables in cold water reduces their stickiness. The third and final stage is the cook done in a steam cooker. Care must be taken to avoid overcooking which would result in a rupture of the cells leading to poor texture and flavor.
Cooking time varies from fifteen minutes to an hour, depending on the solids content of the potato. Pastiness caused by cell rupture can also be mitigated if the potatoes are mashed immediately following the final cooking. Experiments at the ERRC determined that additives should be incorporated into the mash before drying to improve texture and extend shelf life.
One common additive is a dilute solution of sodium bisulfite to retard non-enzymatic browning; another is a monoglyceride emulsifier which also contains antioxidants and which helps prevent a pasty, rubbery texture.
The final major step in the production of instant mashed potatoes is drying. Eventually, the researchers concluded that a single-drum drier was preferable as it yielded a denser flake that was less costly to package.
The processed potatoes come off the drum driers in a continuous sheet which must be broken into flakes before packaging. The potato flake process yielded a product with a stable shelf life which could be reconstituted into instant mashed potatoes with good texture, flavor, and aroma.
Commercial applications of the potato flake process increased demand for potatoes. In the s, consumption increased as flakes were used not only in mashed potatoes, but also in coatings, ingredients, and fabricated foods. Miles Willard, who had been instrumental in the research conducted at the ERRC, went into the private sector where he developed a new class of potato chip-like snack foods using reconstituted potato flakes. In more than 2. Processed potato flakes have been used as rations by the U.
Millions of pounds of potato flakes are purchased by the USDA annually for use in the National School Lunch Program and other domestic child nutrition and food assistance projects. By the mids research on the potato flake process was over and the commercial applications of the process were assured. This enabled researchers at the ERRC — among them, Eskew, Cording, Sullivan, and Nelson Eisenstadt — to shift their attention to developing new methods for drying fruits and vegetables.
The two most commonly employed methods — hot-air drying and freeze-drying — had limitations. Dehydrating pieces of fruit or vegetable by hot air is slow, as is the re-hydration process. The flavor of the re-hydrated pieces often is poor because of long exposure to high temperatures during drying. Freeze-dried products re-hydrate quickly and their quality is superior to the hot-air dried products, but the drying time is even slower and thus more expensive.
A third process — developed at the ERRC — incorporates explosion puffing in the dehydration process. Cording had observed that air-dried pieces of fruits and vegetables collapsed so he hypothesized that if the pieces were puffed up, this would open the inside in a honeycomb effect, making drying easier and quicker. The resulting product. The explosion-puffing process yields low-moisture — less than four percent — fruit and vegetable pieces, producing a rapidly reconstituted, high quality, and inexpensive product.
The vegetable or fruit pieces were heated while the gun rotated at a speed sufficient to tumble the pieces. Chamber pressure in the gun resulted from steam released by the heating of water in the pieces. In the small gun the time required to obtain the requisite pressure varied from seven to fifteen minutes at which point the product exploded from the gun with a loud bang.
Soon, the process was scaled up to get reasonable cost estimates. A large commercial cereal-puffing gun was acquired to test commercial-type feed rates on large batches. The new gun produced vegetable and fruit pieces of superior color and flavor, but it was too labor intensive for commercial use.
This device separated the two major functions: heating and explosion puffing. The heating is done in the main chamber by dispersing superheated steam. The explosion puffing takes place when the discharge piston is released. This reduces the pressure in the discharge chamber from that in the heating chamber to atmospheric levels.
The resulting explosion produced a better product with reduced labor costs. CEPS was initially developed to produce dried potatoes and carrots but was later applied to apples, blueberries, pears, celery, beets, sweet potatoes, turnips, rutabagas, onions, peppers, mushrooms, and other commodities. Puffed carrots work well in quick-cooking dehydrated soup mixes where rapid re-hydration occurs and they have been marketed by companies worldwide. Puffed potatoes are marketed as ingredients in meals for campers and for emergency rations.
Success Story. Two cooks and a water bath Declining potato consumption coupled with increased consumer demand for convenience foods prompted the search for ways of extending the shelf life of potatoes. The mashed potato The potato flake process yielded a product with a stable shelf life which could be reconstituted into instant mashed potatoes with good texture, flavor, and aroma.
Explosion-puffing process By the mids research on the potato flake process was over and the commercial applications of the process were assured. The resulting product is similar in quality to the freeze-dried version, but the re-hydration times are even faster.
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Food Dehydration Technology
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Top 5 Amazon Potato Ricers for 2020
Potatoes are a staple dish for most people in the world. It is used in multiple dishes. It helps give energy for the daily activities of a person. It can be cooked in multiple ways.
Account Options Sign in. Congressional Record : Proceedings and Debates of the Congress , Volume , Part United States. The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress. It is published daily when Congress is in session. The Congressional Record began publication in Debates for sessions prior to are recorded in The Debates and Proceedings in the Congress of the United States , the Register of Debates in Congress , and the Congressional Globe Selected pages Page Title Page.
Rated potato ricer
Account Options Sign in. Eighth-fourth Congress, Second Session on S. July 13,
Патрик, Паи, Бенджи и дети только что отправились в классную комнату. Остальные взрослые еще не покончили с завтраком, когда паук появился в столовой Уэйкфилдов.
Макс проявил грубость. - Прости, Арчи, но мы не принимаем гостей. по крайней мере тех, которые могут и подождать. пока мы не выпьем кофе, или как там у вас называется то дерьмо, которое нам каждый день дают на завтрак. Когда октопаук повернулся, чтобы уйти, Николь поднялась из-за стола. - Не обращай внимания на Макса, - сказала. - Он теперь постоянно в скверном настроении. Макс вскочил из кресла, держа в руке один из пустых пластиковых пакетов, в котором оставалось немного каши.
На топчане возле ее головы стояли две крошечные фигурки, восьми или десяти сантиметров высотой, по-видимому, женские. И вдруг они словно засветились изнутри. Одна из них, коротко стриженая, была облачена в европейские рыцарские доспехи XV столетия. Голову второй венчала корона над пышным платьем средневековой королевы.
- Я Жанна д'Арк, - провозгласила первая. - А я Алиенора Аквитанская. Нервно расхохотавшись, Николь удивленно поглядела на обе фигурки. Чуть позже, когда внутреннее освещение роботов погасло, Николь, наконец, собралась и заговорила. - Итак, Ричард послал вас, чтобы вы помогли мне бежать.
Спросил Роберт чуть испуганным - Пойду назад в лабиринт, - проговорил Макс. Стиснув винтовку, он обернулся и бросился в коридор. Сойдя с голубой линии. Макс успел пробежать около пятидесяти метров, прежде чем перед ним возник первый октопаук. К нему немедленно присоединились еще несколько, перегородивших коридор сплошной стеной.
Ты же знаешь, к тебе это не относится. Мы здесь в зоопарке, а потому друг без друга никуда. Какая разница, на кого мы похожи, раз сравнивать не с кем.
Я вернулась домой очень поздно. Как и следовало ожидать, все уже спали. Мне хотелось раздеться, юркнуть в постель под бок к Ричарду, но этот день оказался настолько необычайным, что я не могу не записать своих чувств и ощущений, пока они не поблекли в моей памяти. Мы - весь наш человеческий клан - позавтракали, как всегда, через час после рассвета.
Прекратите. если вы не можете обойтись без ссор, ступайте в дом.
То, что ты видишь, существовало примерно через один миллион лет после начала творения, и картину эту знает любой, кто изучал физику. Уже возникли простейшие атомы: три изотопа водорода и два - гелия.
Литий сделался самым тяжелым из распространенных атомов.