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Meadow This uniformity of material culture spread across a relatively large region and overlaid a diverse population, which both produced and consumed it. This paper examines the possible mechanisms that could have resulted in the notable similarities in material culture across the Indus and examines models of Indus identity and urban immigration.
I propose that as urbanism developed in South Asia a shared use of material culture and symbolic representations were forged through the integration of different regions linked by trade and craft traditions.
This new material culture was instrumental in creating a common identity for residents of urban centers who, like in all preindustrial cities were constantly immigrating to the emerging urban centers.
This paper seeks to address the processes that lie behind Indus region. Individual and group identities, including similarities in material culture during the Urbanized, ethnicity, would have shifted over time, space, and or Integration, Era of the Indus Civilization. In the past, situationally, with some facets of identity being there were few questions as to why such extensive variously activated or latent in different contexts and common suites of material culture existed.
As regional conceived of differently for each individual and group and temporal variations in material culture begin Brubaker ; Casella and Folwer ; Hu ; Jones to be more thoughtfully explored, questions remain ; Meskell ; Shennan ; Tilly Kenoyer unite diverse peoples. What remains to be better understood is Background why there was a need for maintaining these similarities over such a vast area, what the effects were, and what The Indus Tradition, particularly during the urban this similarity in material culture actually represented.
Emic understandings of identity are problematic within archaeology, particularly when dealing with A suite of material culture that includes utilitarian long-lasting traditions that extend over an incredibly products, prestige goods, and items showing imitation vast and diverse geographic area such as the greater or affiliations with prestige goods is shared by the Indus Tradition Kenoyer Hallmark artifacts include classic black on red pottery with distinctive motifs 1 There is no general model for why material culture suites with and a series of forms Dales and Kenoyer , baked stylistic similarities were used to unite different and even competing political polities.
Such models do not fit the Indus region as these political power strategies do not seem to be extensively employed by Kenoyer ; Miller , Rohri—like chert blade Indus elites comparatively and they do not account for the stylistic technology Allchin ; Cleland ; Davis ; similarity in utilitarian or non-elite goods.
Map of the Indus Civilization map by the author. Gadekar et al. See Figure b, a, , , a, The boundaries are not hard b; Shaffer This urbanized period of the Indus and fast, but are often permeable, fluid, subjective, and tradition is meaningfully named, and mechanisms of are likely undergo future revisions and revaluations.
Regional and chronological variation has increasingly The Regionalization Era directly preceded this urban become an important focus for better understanding and integrated period. During the Regionalization Era, the Indus Tradition or Civilization Ameri ; Gadekar trade networks, symbols, and technology associated et al. As in the Integration Era, trade and networks Shinde et al. The material culture of the Indus Civilization The effect of urbanization on the material culture was traditionally described as being extremely homogeneous, even monotonous and lacking I believe that the phenomena of urbanization in imagination Mackay ; Marshall 91; the Indus region and the increased homogenization Piggott ; Wheeler This veneer, thin as it may be, is During urbanization and integration regional identities relatively homogeneous and includes not only prestige may have become more important as the landscape items embedded with active symbolism, ideologies, became more interconnected and networks expanded and identities, but also utilitarian items and those Bourdieu ; Canuto and Bell In other cases, associated with domestic practice, such as terracotta communities and identities are constructed through cakes in various forms.
The linkage of interactions of unknown persons with potentially material culture with ethnic and linguistic groups competing interests. The formation of social groups was fundamental to culture historical and diffusionist and group identities is a coping strategy that positions approaches to the archaeology of the early 20th century individuals and households into larger collectives with with its roots in nationalism.
However, the boundaries common interests and relatively more power. Individuals and expressions of material culture may or may not would have been a part of more than one social align well with those of social groups such as ethnicities community and group. These group identities could Barth ; Croucher and Wynne-Jones ; Hill ; include ethnicity, but also include class, occupation, and Hodder ; Moore ; Ortman ; Renfrew ; possibly religion, linguistic groups, political factions, Terrell Kenoyer was largely equated with material culture traditions, and others have established the expression of group were applied to regional stylistic traditions of the identity and personal identity in the Indus using visual Regionalization phase Shaffer and Lichtenstein Culture as a result of the fusion of Bagor, Hakra, and Kot Diji ethnic groups Shaffer and Lichtenstein The process of urbanization does not only include the , in a process akin to ethnogenesis within a few initial founding of cities on the landscape but also generations using binary concepts of ethnic group includes the constant in-migration and integration segmentation or fusion Keesing Ethnic groups of outside populations into urban centers.
This is a were also fundamental to portrayals of the greater general process that is common for all urban centers. Indus region as a Cultural Mosaic, where different In-migration may have been necessary to sustain ecological zones had distinct ceramics and subsistence populations in pre-modern cities, though this principle systems Mughal ; Possehl , , , b; is not without controversy Kreger ; Paine ; Possehl and Herman In these cases, ethnicity is Paine and Storey ; Storey , , ; Storey employed as an organizational construct, assumed to et al.
Models for ethnic processes during urbanization The urbanization processes would enact changes and pressures upon existing ethnicities as individuals, society, and culture negotiated and innovated arrangements and patterns to adjust to new settlement scales and densities, landscape use, and social networks.
Here I outline four basic models that describe the ways in that ethnicity can be affected through urbanization processes, or other processes of high-level multi- Figure 2. These from urbanization image by the author. It may be that ethnicity as it is of groups created four patterns in which: 1 new analogous to historic examples only comes into being communities and networks would emerge in the urban during the urbanization of landscapes for summary of environment with new stylistic material cultures that other positions, see Emberling However, in remote periods when inequity clustering.
Therefore, models of processes linked styles and continued use of those styles in rural areas. The remaining ethnogenesis process is simply correlates of four separate ethnic processes in the face the emergence of new styles, symbols and practices of urbanization Ethnogenesis, Emphasis, Dominance, among regional interaction network foraging a new and Dormancy.
A highly simplified model of the effects common identity. One needs a multi-scalar approach over an extended timescale Ethnogenesis is a result of the formation of a new utilizing multiple lines of evidence including symbolic, ethnic identity. This has been widely discussed in technological, and isochrestic styles with similar archaeological literature Canuto and Bell ; distributions in ritual, domestic, dietary, or other forms Cordell and Yannie ; Kurien ; Hill ; Hu of practice Stovel At a most basic level, an ethnic ; Voss Both the term and conceptions of group should share a distribution of multiple material ethnogenesis are laden with colonial baggage Card indicators reflecting similar symbolism and practices , as models of ethnogenesis are almost invariably that is continuously spread over a regional landscape.
Here I partially divest should not demonstrate spatial segregation within myself from this scholarship and consider the material urban centers except for special foreign enclaves, or correlates of a new community identity with new, sarais , and bridge economic or other social divides. In shared values and culture. The networks of individuals practice, such distributions of symbolism, styles, and sharing this community identity, i.
We should not architectures. A local temporally deep and detailed understanding of Dominance social, political, and economic networks, communities, and expressions of identity are required before such Dominance would include legitimization of social and linkages can be made. Ethnicity, and, in particular, this economic power inequities, at a local scale and regionally process of ethnogenesis, should be hypothesized when through migration, imperialism, conquest, and the no other explanations of the data are compatible with subversion of all other ethnicities under one ethnicity.
Dominance does not imply that former identities are effectively erased. In cases of historic colonialism, local In this model of these particular ethnogenesis processes, identities persist in a myriad of ways for a summary, as the landscape is urbanized new communities of see Voss Even in cases of supposed complete practice, isochrestic, emblematic, and technological domination and incorporation, such as the assimilation styles should emerge possibly as hybridization of of the Ainu into a mythological homogenous Japanese two or more pre-existing separate local traditions.
While emulation and diffusion at identification of the communities that are compatible the boundaries of social groups have been traditionally with our understandings of ethnic processes that employed in archaeology to account for hybrid they are signaling membership of this new ethnicity forms, it traditionally ignored the possibility of new through material culture in emblematic style Wiessner groups emerging from that interaction Lightfoot and as a way to make it socially, politically, or Martinez This type of ethnomorphsis should be economically salient.
This should be evident not only particularly visible on the borderlands were processes in the way these styles are used at a local level but also of acculturation, accommodation, bricolage, or other that they are operating at scales larger than distribution related processes should be evidenced through local Emberling However, it would be expected that similar Emphasis looking processes would occur on the borderlands between two different subsistence, economic, and In this scenario of social arrangement there should be social systems and networks even if those entities were pronounced emphasis on ethnicity as an important not conceived of as ethnicities, the power relations and social construct and identity, and this emphasis of interactions between the cultures were not unequal, ethnic identity correlates of active displays of identity and borders were not analogous to colonial frontiers.
Both be reflective of the differential power structures and ethnoarchaeology and art history have provided relationships between two or more social groups Card examples of this effect i.
Important aspects , where increased interaction leads to increased to consider when examining local processes would conflict and emphasis of these identities. In such be the pace of hybridization and if the all genders, cases ethnic grouping can be both primordial, based occupations, and classes within the culture actuated on deep shared history or descent, and concurrently the elements adopted.
Along with the types of elements instrumentalist in that it is strategically invoked to utilized, including domestic and culinary practices, meet political or economic goals Barth ; Cipolla technological styles, and emblematic styles. A different kind of possible ethnogenesis tied to inequity and dominance would be fission of earlier The material culture styles should be spatially ethnicities Hu a: In an urban environment, concentrated in the urbanized landscape, including a fission event could occur when two social groups within urban centers, and would re-occur in multiple, with close interactions develop social inequalities Hu variously valued object classes and materials.
Here ; Voss The relationships between Dormancy Regional and Integration phase material culture could fit with either the ethnogenesis or dormancy models as The final possible effect of urbanization on ethnicity is it is a new style that draws upon pre-existing elements Dormancy.
During Dormancy, ethnic identities remain and forms. I believe those elements that continued on intact, however, other identities such as class and were those that were the broadest and conveyed the occupation become more active and salient.
Ethnicity most fundamental concepts and stories that become becomes less salient Tilly , de-emphasized, or increasingly abstract through time as they become latent. The greatest support of the dormant for extended periods of time until activated dormancy model is the re-emergence of regional style under certain circumstances such as threat, stress, or elements during the deurbanizing Localization Era, through the efforts of a charismatic leader drawing on demonstrating a cultural memory and persistence of location, social memory or activities Janusek In the case of initial urbanization, I predict that stylistic elements would build off previous pre- Below I will briefly outline the extant evidence for the urban motifs drawing particularly from transcultural most relevant indicators proposed for my different symbolism and elements to create a new neutral style, models of the ethnomorphic processes of urbanization rather than seeing a true hybridization of forms.
The and how they favor the dormancy model. I will first homogenization of material culture can be a conscious or outline the relationship of regional pre-urban styles to unconscious strategy to strengthened intercommunity Harappan style. I will then argue for cultural plurality, relations Voss Shared material culture also can act as a urbanism. Finally, I will introduce the phenomena of way to promote collective action and has been a marker cultural memory of regional elements.
A refined analysis and reporting of artifact dynamics of identity within the greater Indus Tradition, attributes and re-assessments of chronological and and in specific regions, will required more directed spatial relationships, and regional variations is still and detailed archaeological inquiries. Well-recorded required. Kot Dijian style has been largely framed and published attributes of artifacts from secure as a core repertoire from which the Harappan style context are not available from all corners of the Indus emerged.
In addition to our greater understandings Tradition or for all periods. The urbanization process of the nature of other pre-urban regional traditions during the Regionalization Phase is amongst the most Garge Ajitprasad ; Rajesh ; Rajesh et impoverished datasets and the most important for al. The roughly central location of would be expected following the dominance model of the Indus Valley associated with classic Kot Diji would migration, colonialism, or conquest.
Harappan style appears are not exclusively found in at sites labeled Kot Diji but draw upon larger and deep There are several lines of evidence that suggest ethnic transcultural symbolism and knowledge.
Antecedents pluralism in the Harappan world and that this ethnic of Harappan styles and forms appear in other regional pluralism is not spatially segregated as the emphasis traditions and even outside the geographic core of the model predicts.
The first is the existence of difference Indus Tradition. Such cooking pots, that span in all corners of the greater Indus sphere and associated foods maybe linked to both tacit and from Northern and Southern Baluchistan, Sindh, performative expressions of identity e. Ferguson Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, and to a more limited Analysis of human figurines has also been used extent Northern Gujarat Ajitprasad ; Besenval to address issues of Indus identity and forms of self- ; Bisht ; Casal ; Durrani ; Franke-Vogt representation with multiple ethnicities suggested, but and Ibrahim ; Jenkins ; Khan ; Khan et al.
Other emblematic al. Different communities of practice Jarrige et al.
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While honoring our traditions, It is located in the same area as Munemasa Shuzo storehouse and is being operated by the company. Many Arita wares are displayed in the park that are thought
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