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Civil engineeringVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Types of plant layout
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including public works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, structural components of buildings, and railways.
Civil engineering is traditionally broken into a number of sub-disciplines. It is considered the second-oldest engineering discipline after military engineering ,  and it is defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering. Civil engineering is the application of physical and scientific principles for solving the problems of society, and its history is intricately linked to advances in the understanding of physics and mathematics throughout history.
Because civil engineering is a wide-ranging profession, including several specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to knowledge of structures, materials science, geography, geology, soils , hydrology , environment , mechanics and other fields.
Throughout ancient and medieval history most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans , such as stonemasons and carpenters , rising to the role of master builder. Knowledge was retained in guilds and seldom supplanted by advances. Structures, roads, and infrastructure that existed were repetitive, and increases in scale were incremental. One of the earliest examples of a scientific approach to physical and mathematical problems applicable to civil engineering is the work of Archimedes in the 3rd century BC, including Archimedes Principle, which underpins our understanding of buoyancy , and practical solutions such as Archimedes' screw.
Brahmagupta , an Indian mathematician, used arithmetic in the 7th century AD, based on Hindu-Arabic numerals, for excavation volume computations.
Engineering has been an aspect of life since the beginnings of human existence. The earliest practice of civil engineering may have commenced between and BC in ancient Egypt , the Indus Valley Civilization , and Mesopotamia ancient Iraq when humans started to abandon a nomadic existence, creating a need for the construction of shelter.
During this time, transportation became increasingly important leading to the development of the wheel and sailing. Until modern times there was no clear distinction between civil engineering and architecture, and the term engineer and architect were mainly geographical variations referring to the same occupation, and often used interchangeably.
The Romans developed civil structures throughout their empire, including especially aqueducts , insulae , harbors, bridges, dams and roads.
In the 18th century, the term civil engineering was coined to incorporate all things civilian as opposed to military engineering. Though there was evidence of some technical meetings, it was little more than a social society.
In the Institution of Civil Engineers was founded in London,  and in the eminent engineer Thomas Telford became its first president. The institution received a Royal Charter in , formally recognising civil engineering as a profession.
Its charter defined civil engineering as:. The first private college to teach civil engineering in the United States was Norwich University , founded in by Captain Alden Partridge. In the UK during the early 19th century, the division between civil engineering and military engineering served by the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich , coupled with the demands of the Industrial Revolution, spawned new engineering education initiatives: the Class of Civil Engineering and Mining was founded at King's College London in , mainly as a response to the growth of the railway system and the need for more qualified engineers, the private College for Civil Engineers in Putney was established in , and the UK's first Chair of Engineering was established at the University of Glasgow in Civil engineers typically possess an academic degree in civil engineering.
The length of study is three to five years, and the completed degree is designated as a bachelor of technology , or a bachelor of engineering.
The curriculum generally includes classes in physics, mathematics, project management , design and specific topics in civil engineering. After taking basic courses in most sub-disciplines of civil engineering, they move on to specialize in one or more sub-disciplines at advanced levels.
In most countries, a bachelor's degree in engineering represents the first step towards professional certification , and a professional body certifies the degree program. After completing a certified degree program, the engineer must satisfy a range of requirements including work experience and exam requirements before being certified. Once certified, the engineer is designated as a professional engineer in the United States, Canada and South Africa , a chartered engineer in most Commonwealth countries , a chartered professional engineer in Australia and New Zealand , or a European engineer in most countries of the European Union.
There are international agreements between relevant professional bodies to allow engineers to practice across national borders. The benefits of certification vary depending upon location. For example, in the United States and Canada, "only a licensed professional engineer may prepare, sign and seal, and submit engineering plans and drawings to a public authority for approval, or seal engineering work for public and private clients.
In Australia, state licensing of engineers is limited to the state of Queensland. Almost all certifying bodies maintain a code of ethics which all members must abide by. Engineers must obey contract law in their contractual relationships with other parties. In cases where an engineer's work fails, they may be subject to the law of tort of negligence , and in extreme cases, criminal charges. There are a number of sub-disciplines within the broad field of civil engineering.
General civil engineers work closely with surveyors and specialized civil engineers to design grading, drainage, pavement , water supply, sewer service, dams, electric and communications supply.
General civil engineering is also referred to as site engineering, a branch of civil engineering that primarily focuses on converting a tract of land from one usage to another. Site engineers spend time visiting project sites, meeting with stakeholders, and preparing construction plans. Civil engineers apply the principles of geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, environmental engineering, transportation engineering and construction engineering to residential, commercial, industrial and public works projects of all sizes and levels of construction.
Coastal engineering is concerned with managing coastal areas. In some jurisdictions, the terms sea defense and coastal protection mean defense against flooding and erosion, respectively. The term coastal defense is the more traditional term, but coastal management has become more popular as the field has expanded to techniques that allow erosion to claim land. Construction engineering involves planning and execution, transportation of materials, site development based on hydraulic, environmental, structural and geotechnical engineering.
As construction firms tend to have higher business risk than other types of civil engineering firms do, construction engineers often engage in more business-like transactions, for example, drafting and reviewing contracts, evaluating logistical operations , and monitoring prices of supplies.
Earthquake engineering involves designing structures to withstand hazardous earthquake exposures. Earthquake engineering is a sub-discipline of structural engineering. The main objectives of earthquake engineering are  to understand interaction of structures on the shaky ground; foresee the consequences of possible earthquakes; and design, construct and maintain structures to perform at earthquake in compliance with building codes.
Environmental engineering is the contemporary term for sanitary engineering , though sanitary engineering traditionally had not included much of the hazardous waste management and environmental remediation work covered by environmental engineering.
Public health engineering and environmental health engineering are other terms being used. Environmental engineering deals with treatment of chemical, biological, or thermal wastes, purification of water and air, and remediation of contaminated sites after waste disposal or accidental contamination.
Among the topics covered by environmental engineering are pollutant transport, water purification , waste water treatment , air pollution, solid waste treatment , recycling , and hazardous waste management.
Environmental engineers administer pollution reduction, green engineering , and industrial ecology. Environmental engineers also compile information on environmental consequences of proposed actions. Forensic engineering is the investigation of materials, products , structures or components that fail or do not operate or function as intended, causing personal injury or damage to property.
The consequences of failure are dealt with by the law of product liability. The field also deals with retracing processes and procedures leading to accidents in operation of vehicles or machinery.
The subject is applied most commonly in civil law cases, although it may be of use in criminal law cases. Generally the purpose of a Forensic engineering investigation is to locate cause or causes of failure with a view to improve performance or life of a component, or to assist a court in determining the facts of an accident.
It can also involve investigation of intellectual property claims, especially patents. Geotechnical engineering studies rock and soil supporting civil engineering systems.
Knowledge from the field of soil science , materials science, mechanics , and hydraulics is applied to safely and economically design foundations , retaining walls , and other structures. Environmental efforts to protect groundwater and safely maintain landfills have spawned a new area of research called geoenvironmental engineering.
Identification of soil properties presents challenges to geotechnical engineers. Boundary conditions are often well defined in other branches of civil engineering, but unlike steel or concrete, the material properties and behavior of soil are difficult to predict due to its variability and limitation on investigation. Furthermore, soil exhibits nonlinear stress -dependent strength , stiffness, and dilatancy volume change associated with application of shear stress , making studying soil mechanics all the more difficult.
Materials science is closely related to civil engineering. It studies fundamental characteristics of materials, and deals with ceramics such as concrete and mix asphalt concrete, strong metals such as aluminum and steel, and thermosetting polymers including polymethylmethacrylate PMMA and carbon fibers. Materials engineering involves protection and prevention paints and finishes.
Alloying combines two types of metals to produce another metal with desired properties. It incorporates elements of applied physics and chemistry. With recent media attention on nanoscience and nanotechnology , materials engineering has been at the forefront of academic research. It is also an important part of forensic engineering and failure analysis. Structural engineering is concerned with the structural design and structural analysis of buildings, bridges, towers , flyovers overpasses , tunnels, off shore structures like oil and gas fields in the sea, aerostructure and other structures.
This involves identifying the loads which act upon a structure and the forces and stresses which arise within that structure due to those loads, and then designing the structure to successfully support and resist those loads. The loads can be self weight of the structures, other dead load, live loads, moving wheel load, wind load, earthquake load, load from temperature change etc. The structural engineer must design structures to be safe for their users and to successfully fulfill the function they are designed for to be serviceable.
Due to the nature of some loading conditions, sub-disciplines within structural engineering have emerged, including wind engineering and earthquake engineering.
Design considerations will include strength, stiffness, and stability of the structure when subjected to loads which may be static, such as furniture or self-weight, or dynamic, such as wind, seismic, crowd or vehicle loads, or transitory, such as temporary construction loads or impact. Other considerations include cost, constructability, safety, aesthetics and sustainability.
Surveying is the process by which a surveyor measures certain dimensions that occur on or near the surface of the Earth. Surveying equipment such as levels and theodolites are used for accurate measurement of angular deviation, horizontal, vertical and slope distances. With computerisation, electronic distance measurement EDM , total stations, GPS surveying and laser scanning have to a large extent supplanted traditional instruments.
Data collected by survey measurement is converted into a graphical representation of the Earth's surface in the form of a map. This information is then used by civil engineers, contractors and realtors to design from, build on, and trade, respectively. Elements of a structure must be sized and positioned in relation to each other and to site boundaries and adjacent structures.
Although surveying is a distinct profession with separate qualifications and licensing arrangements, civil engineers are trained in the basics of surveying and mapping, as well as geographic information systems.
Surveyors also lay out the routes of railways, tramway tracks , highways, roads, pipelines and streets as well as position other infrastructure, such as harbors , before construction.
In the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and most Commonwealth countries land surveying is considered to be a separate and distinct profession. Land surveyors are not considered to be engineers, and have their own professional associations and licensing requirements. The services of a licensed land surveyor are generally required for boundary surveys to establish the boundaries of a parcel using its legal description and subdivision plans a plot or map based on a survey of a parcel of land, with boundary lines drawn inside the larger parcel to indicate the creation of new boundary lines and roads , both of which are generally referred to as Cadastral surveying.
Construction surveying is generally performed by specialised technicians. Unlike land surveyors, the resulting plan does not have legal status.
Construction surveyors perform the following tasks:. Transportation engineering is concerned with moving people and goods efficiently, safely, and in a manner conducive to a vibrant community. This involves specifying, designing, constructing, and maintaining transportation infrastructure which includes streets, canals, highways, rail systems , airports, ports, and mass transit.
It includes areas such as transportation design, transportation planning , traffic engineering , some aspects of urban engineering , queueing theory , pavement engineering , Intelligent Transportation System ITS , and infrastructure management. Municipal engineering is concerned with municipal infrastructure.
Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search. Springer Shop Amazon. This volume has been carefully researched and updated since publication of the previous arrangement of the book edition, and provides more company data on the most important companies in the region. The information in the This book has been arranged in order to allow the reader to book was submitted mostly by the companies themselves, find any entry rapidly and accurately. The companies listed have been selected on the grounds of Company entries are listed alphabetically within each section; the size of their sales volume or balance sheet or their in addition three indexes are provided on coloured paper at importance to the business environment of the country in the back of the book.
Power plant engineering
Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search. Springer Shop Amazon. This volume has been carefully researched and updated since publication of the previous arrangement of the book edition, and provides more company data on the most important companies in the region. The information in the This book has been arranged in order to allow the reader to book was submitted mostly by the companies themselves, find any entry rapidly and accurately. Company entries are listed alphabetically within each section; The companies listed have been selected on the grounds of in addition three indexes are provided on coloured paper at the size of their sales volume or balance sheet or their the back of the book.
Power Generating Structures
The company has considerable experience in this field, verified by many successful projects. TENZA, a. Heating Plants Heating plants are often the heat source in centralized heat delivery systems. The output of standard heating plants ranges from several kilowatts to dozens of megawatts. These plants can combust various types of fuel - gas, oil, coal or biomass. Electric power may also be used to produce heat in heating plants in isolated cases.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Building Sea City (Engineering Documentary) - Spark
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including public works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, structural components of buildings, and railways. Civil engineering is traditionally broken into a number of sub-disciplines. It is considered the second-oldest engineering discipline after military engineering ,  and it is defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering. Civil engineering is the application of physical and scientific principles for solving the problems of society, and its history is intricately linked to advances in the understanding of physics and mathematics throughout history. Because civil engineering is a wide-ranging profession, including several specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to knowledge of structures, materials science, geography, geology, soils , hydrology , environment , mechanics and other fields. Throughout ancient and medieval history most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans , such as stonemasons and carpenters , rising to the role of master builder. Knowledge was retained in guilds and seldom supplanted by advances.
It is the only magazine to promote your company in Ireland. It makes readers aware of the major issues that have an impact on the industry across the island of Ireland. Key editorial topics focus on factual news, developments and trends within the industry, new legislation directly affecting Irish business, corporate events, developments and achievements, industry directives, concerns and general business information on local and national issues.
Я проглядел все снимки, - не унимался Ричард, продолжая кричать. - А ты знаешь, как москитоморфы общаются с видеоквадроидами.
Их ненадолго оставили вдвоем. Элли и Эпонина вместе с Арчи завершали все приготовления к отбытию на следующее утро. - Ты сегодня тихая, - сказал Ричард. - Да, это так, - согласилась Николь. - Я чувствую себя какой-то странной, словно бы одурманенной после утренних исследований. Моя память вдруг оживилась. Я вспоминаю своих родителей, Омэ.
и видения, которые были у меня многие годы .
Поскольку размер зала составляет полкилометра, вы можете показать здесь объект примерно в две тысячи километров длиной, не так. - Правильно. Но почему ты спрашиваешь. Николь взволновалась. - Нельзя ли переключиться на Землю. - поинтересовалась. - Можно ли пролететь над Францией.
Все в природе следует определенным законам. Эти законы могут быть выражены дифференциальными уравнениями, зависящими от времени. Если точно знать начальное состояние всей системы в заданный момент и точные уравнения, описывающие законы природы, теоретически мы можем предсказать все последствия.
Конечно, люди не способны на это, ведь наши познания всегда ограничены, а статистика всегда сводит к минимуму применимость наших критериев. - Можно предположить, - проговорила Николь, опираясь на локоть, - что существуют люди или даже целые группы людей, не знающие математики, но неким образом способные _видеть_ или _ощущать_ те законы и начальные условия, которые ты упомянул.
Что, если они способны интуитивно, хотя бы отчасти, решать эти уравнения.
Социальная наука октопауков начала продумывать организацию такого общества, в котором октопауки будут почти бессмертны, а причинами окончания жизни останутся лишь несчастные случаи или внезапные отказы жизненно важных органов. Когда все колонии заселили бесполые октопауки, амбиции и агрессивность, как и предсказывали биологи, почти исчезли. - Все это происходило много поколений назад, - проговорил Арчи, - и теперь сделалось лишь информацией, которая может помочь вам представить сущность процесса матрикуляции.
Спросил. - Они сочетались браком, - сказал Арчи, - и у них уже несколько отпрысков.
К тому же, новоэдемские инженеры закончили переделывать геликоптеры. Верховный Оптимизатор полагает, что они начнут полеты над лесом через неделю-другую. - И никакого ответа на ваши послания. - Никакого.
Но анализы заняли почти две недели, а теперь он утверждает, что хочет взять пробу ткани сердечной мышцы. - Знаю, - мрачно ответила Николь.