Linen yarn used for manufacturing linen is spun from fibres found in the stem of the flax plant. The yarn is used for weaving. Fabric woven from the flax yarn is called linen. Linen is a fabric that is quite popular nowadays because of its uses for sheeting, clothing and towelling. Being a natural insulator linen keeps you warm in the winter and cool in the summer. This unique feature makes linen a popular fabric for making beddings.
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- Types of Machines Used in Textile Industries
- Textile manufacturing
- Textile manufacturing by pre-industrial methods
- Series on Fibres: How Is Linen Fabric Made?
- Production of Banana Fiber Yarns for Technical Textile Reinforced Composites
- The Production Method of the Amazing Natural Fabric – Linen
- Production of yarn
Types of Machines Used in Textile IndustriesVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How Cotton is Processed in Factories - How It’s Made
Efficient use of natural resources and utilization of recoverable wastes are getting more and more important day by day since recovering wastes have both economic and environmental benefits. As the source material costs constitute the majority of the yarn production costs, decreasing raw material costs provide considerable advantages for spinners. From the point of textile manufacturing, various production wastes can be reused in textile industry.
Compared to research on r-PET, recovered cotton fibers inspired interest recently. The main objective of this study is to fill the gap in the literature via investigating the properties of the yarns produced with recovered cotton wastes, generated in different sources.
For this purpose, spinning mill waste types were selected. In this experimental study, different waste types card waste, blowroom waste, and fabric waste and blending ratios were used. As a conclusion, the effect of waste type and blend ratio on the physical and mechanical properties of the yarns and the fabrics, produced with virgin and waste cotton fibers, were analyzed.
Textile Industry and Environment. Every being in this world has an expiration date, even the world itself possibly has one. This situation is the same for man-made products too. We produce them, use them, and try to find a way to get rid of them, when the time comes. One of the hardest questions of today comes to mind at this point: How will we manage the resultant waste of the products we created?
Should we dump the waste to proper waste yards and reuse or recycle them? The answers to these questions are crucial. Scientists, governments, and local authorities work for finding answers to these questions. Wastes can be a problem for local authorities because of their environmental effects. There are different categories of wastes. According to Australian Waste Report , these categories are masonry materials asphalt, bricks, rubble, etc. Some of these waste types can be recycled and utilized as raw materials in same type of products they belong in or in different products.
Textile wastes can be divided into two main groups: production wastes and postproduction wastes. Production wastes are basically raw materials of each production step which cannot be put into end product due to different reasons.
For yarn spinners, these wastes can occur during cleaning of the fibers or combing out short-staple fibers from the long ones in combing machine, etc. After spinning mill, there are wastes in yarn and fabric forms, and they need recycling to be put again in production.
Postproduction wastes are generally worn out cloths, which can be recycled and may be used again in textiles or utilized in other products. Textiles include different raw material fiber types. Fibers used in textiles are categorized into two main groups, which are natural and man-made fibers. Most known examples for natural fibers are cotton seed fibers , wool, silk animal fibers , flax bast fibers , sisal leaf fibers , and asbestos mineral fibers. On the other hand, polyester, nylon, acrylic which are synthetic fibers , modal, viscose rayon, and acetate rayon which are regenerated fibers are some of the examples for man-made fibers [ 2 ].
Thereby, textile wastes have a great variety of raw material sources. These wastes can be recycled or reused in different products. In , global fiber production exceeded million mt. Other product wastes can also be utilized in textile production. One of the most known examples for this is PET bottles. There are various studies about this topic. These studies cover spinning of the fiber, properties of the fiber [ 4 ], properties of yarn, and fabric produced from this fiber and all [ 5 ].
Some of the researches are focused on using textile wastes in different products. Briga-Sa, Binici, and El Wazna used textile wastes as insulation materials, and Briga-Sa indicated that they got results similar to polystyrene XPS and mineral wool [ 7 , 8 , 9 ]. Shukla used PET fiber wastes to synthesize new chemicals which can be used in different fields [ 10 ].
These examples show that textiles are generally sustainable materials. There are too many studies dedicated on this topic. Liquid waste and solid waste are generated during the production of textiles. Especially agriculture of cotton fiber, which is the subject of this study, and the evaluation of the solid wastes that occur during yarn spinning are important for sustainability and environment.
These topics are really important for the future, considering the increasing world population and decreasing agricultural areas. Moreover, large amounts of water are consumed; pesticides and synthetic fertilizers are used during cotton growing. Especially pesticides have negative effects on human health. This should be considered by the producers. Due to increasing fiber production, the amount of pre-consumer and postconsumer textile wastes is increasing.
Moreover, as the amount of textile solid waste increases, the evaluation of these wastes becomes more important. Therefore, the terms of sustainability and circular economy issues come to the forefront in textile industry. This chapter is focused on spinning mill wastes of textile wastes. Information about how textile wastes occur in spinning mills and utilization of them in textiles are given. For this reason, informations about spinning mill and wastes occurring in spinning mill were given, initially.
In this process, one of the main defining parameter is fiber length. According to fiber length, machinery and their adjustments that should be used are determined. In textile yarn manufacturing, two main systems are used depending on fiber length: short-staple and long-staple spinning systems. Short-staple fibers are generally processed dry using mechanical means, and the spinning systems used for this types of fibers are also known as cotton spinning system [ 14 ].
From the field, seed cotton moves to gins for separation of lint and seed. This is the first step in which cotton wastes occurred. Cotton gin wastes consist of sticks, leaves, burs, soil particles, mote, cotton lint, and other plant materials [ 15 ]. These wastes can be used in different areas such as chemical industry e. After harvest and ginning, cotton fibers are compressed and bales are formed. For this reason, the first step in a cotton spinning mill is opening. This process is needed in order to clean effectively and form slivers in which individual fibers are oriented very closely to sliver axis [ 16 ].
Most of the opening and cleaning is carried out in blowroom machinery. However, card has an important role in opening and cleaning. Most of spinning mill wastes occur in these machinery. Parallelization is carried out subsequent to opening and cleaning processes. It is really important to force fibers to place as parallel to each other as possible in sliver to spin a good quality yarn.
Machine mainly responsible for this process is draw frame which also takes care of attenuation and doubling of slivers. Fibrous waste amount of these machines is lower compared to the rest of the spinning mill machinery. To produce some cotton end products especially in which fine yarns are used, yarns with better properties are needed. One of the ways to do so is to remove some fibers that are much shorter than the mean of the distribution from slivers [ 16 ].
This process is carried out with combing machine. In Figure 1 , spinning machinery line with combing machine is given. This means waste ratio of this process is high. During roving and spinning for ring spinning , some fibers cannot enter yarn or roving body, and fiber fly is formed. These fibers are sucked by pneumatic systems that are placed after delivery rollers, and they are collected in the machine. In open-end rotor spinning systems wastes can occur in opening rollers which also are responsible for cleaning.
Klein classified cotton fibers used in short-staple spinning as virgin fiber from ginning mill , clean waste, comber waste, recycled fibers from dirty waste, and fibers torn out of hard waste roving, yarn, and twisted threads [ 19 ]. Spinning wastes and their sources are given in Figure 2. As the waste fibers are processed in different number of machines and therefore stressed fibers, their good fiber content is less than virgin fibers.
For this reason, spinners prefer to feed the waste fibers into normal spinning process, in a controlled manner, with a constant percentage in order to avoid quality variations.
Generally, wastes arising in the mills can be returned to the same blend from which they arose; comber wastes are mostly used in rotor spinning. According to Klein, waste generation in spinning mills of industrialized countries differs from machine to machine. The waste mostly occurs in comb machine, as one of its primary functions is to remove short fibers which are called comber wastes.
Lowest waste creating machine in the spinning mill is draw frame. If the spinner is producing carded yarns, blowroom is responsible for the most waste generation. However, in blowroom machinery and card, shorter fibers have the highest ratio in the resultant waste despite ring spinning frame. As the raw material costs constitute the majority of yarn production costs, spinners prefer to use waste fibers in the blends.
In addition to saving raw material costs and the requirement for efficient use of limited raw material resources, the possibility of using higher degree of cleaning in the blowroom machines is the other advantage. Many researches focused on cotton spinning wastes.
Waste fibers were obtained from cotton noil, recycled fibers, flat waste, etc. According to their following research, the rotor diameter, yarn linear density, and the navel type had the largest, and the opening roller speed had the lowest effect on yarn hairiness, for all waste ratios.
Furthermore, they have found that yarns produced with higher waste proportions had higher hairiness values [ 24 ]. Khan and Rahman have focused on the effects of rotor spinning parameters too. They have studied the effects of rotor speed, combing-roll speed, and type of recycled waste on rotor yarn quality and end breakage, using response surface methodology.
They have collected spinning wastes from different positions of ring spinning process flat strips, noil, filter waste, and Pneumafil and used after recycling, except Pneumafil. The negative impacts of rotor speed on yarn imperfections and end breakage can be minimized also.
The present invention provides a process of recycling the cotton fabrics. In general, the present invention relates to the textile industry. The invention provides a process of recycling the cotton fabrics. More particularly, the present invention provides a process, which provides a new way of manufacturing yarns i. The rags are collected and recycled in an inventive process so as to make recycled cotton products having quality and appearance as per the today's market standards.
Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn , yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide range of products. Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre.
Textile manufacturing by pre-industrial methods
The term textile industry from the Latin texere, to weave was originally applied to the weaving of fabrics from fibres, but now it includes a broad range of other processes such as knitting, tufting, felting and so on. It has also been extended to include the making of yarn from natural or synthetic fibres as well as the finishing and dyeing of fabrics. In prehistoric eras, animal hair, plants and seeds were used to make fibres. Silk was introduced in China around BC, and in the middle of the 18th century AD, the first synthetic fibres were created. Silk is the only natural fibre formed in filaments which can be twisted together to make yarn.
Textile manufacturing is one of the oldest human activities. The oldest known textiles date back to about B. In order to make textiles, the first requirement is a source of fibre from which a yarn can be made, primarily by spinning. The yarn is processed by knitting or weaving to create cloth. The machine used for weaving is the loom. Cloth is finished by what are described as wet processes to become fabric. The fabric may be dyed , printed or decorated by embroidering with coloured yarns.
Series on Fibres: How Is Linen Fabric Made?
Natural fibers have been used as an alternative to synthetic ones for their greener character; banana fibers have the advantage of coming from an agricultural residue. Fibers have been extracted by mechanical means from banana tree pseudostems, as a strategy to valorize banana crops residues. To increase the mechanical properties of the composite, technical textiles can be used as reinforcement, instead of short fibers.
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Production of Banana Fiber Yarns for Technical Textile Reinforced Composites
Linen yarn is spun from the long fibers found just behind the bark in the multi-layer stem of the flax plant Linum usitatissimum. In order to retrieve the fibers from the plant, the woody stem and the inner pith called pectin , which holds the fibers together in a clump, must be rotted away. The cellulose fiber from the stem is spinnable and is used in the production of linen thread, cordage, and twine. From linen thread or yarn, fine toweling and dress fabrics may be woven. Linen fabric is a popular choice for warm-weather clothing. It feels cool in the summer but appears crisp and fresh even in hot weather.
The Production Method of the Amazing Natural Fabric – Linen
Between and , textile production was second only to agriculture in economic importance. It employed more people and produced more profit than any other manufactured product. Production and trade existed at two levels. Everywhere peasants and villagers turned locally grown wool and flax into fabric and clothing for themselves and their neighbors. The cloth they produced was of poor quality and not designed for export to distant markets.
Production of yarn
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Efficient use of natural resources and utilization of recoverable wastes are getting more and more important day by day since recovering wastes have both economic and environmental benefits. As the source material costs constitute the majority of the yarn production costs, decreasing raw material costs provide considerable advantages for spinners.
Linen is a flax-based textile that is predominantly used for homeware applications. While linen is similar to cotton, it is made from fibers derived from the stems of the flax plant instead of the bolls that grow around cotton seeds. Garments made of linen are desirable in hot and humid climates.
Linen is laborious to manufacture, but the fiber is very strong, absorbent, and dries faster than cotton. Garments made of linen are valued for their exceptional coolness and freshness in hot and humid weather. This word history has given rise to a number of other terms in English, most notably line , from the use of a linen flax thread to determine a straight line. The collective term " linens " is still often used generically to describe a class of woven or knitted bed, bath, table and kitchen textiles traditionally made of flax-based linen but today made from a variety of fibers.