Starch is a group of poly saccharides, composed of glucopyranose units joined together by glucosidric linkages. Starch is also metabolized for energy in plants and animals, and is used to produce a large number of industrial products. Starch is processed to produce many of the sugars in processed foods. The biggest industrial non food use of starch is as adhesive in the paper making process.
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- Packaging EndUser: Starch- and Dextrin-Based Adhesives
- Global Starch Industry
- Acid Modification of Sago Hampas for Industrial Purposes
- Technology Of Starch Manufacture ( Applications, Properties And Compositions With Project Profiles)
- US20020009532A1 - Sago fluidity starch and use thereof - Google Patents
- US2215847A - Composition prepared from dextrins - Google Patents
Packaging EndUser: Starch- and Dextrin-Based Adhesives
Cassava is frequently cultivated as a temporary shade plant in young plantations of cocoa, coffee, rubber or oil palm. In Thailand, however, it is grown mostly as a sole crop, and the farmer may grow cassava on the same land for ten years or more. If the price of cassava roots drops, the farmer may shift to another crop e. Water is essential until the plant is well established. In moist soil, sprouting takes place within the first week after planting.
Generally, about 5 percent of the cuttings will not come to development, so a corresponding surplus has to be provided for. Within a month of planting, the substitution of new cuttings is still possible. No fertilization is required when the land is freshly cleared or when there is enough land to enable the cultivator to substitute new land for old when yields fall.
Like all rapidly growing plants yielding carbohydrates, cassava has high nutrient requirements and exhausts the soil very rapidly. In choosing a strain, the hydrocyanic acid content should be taken into account. Highly poisonous strains are preferred for the purpose of starch manufacture, thereby minimizing thefts by both animals and men.
Global cassava harvest areas have decreased to billion rai 16 billion Ha in , compared with billion rai in The total cassava production of Nigeria in was estimated at 32 million tons, or about 19 percent of world cassava production. The main cassava planting areas are in Africa.
Tapioca starch is a fine, white powder extracted from pulped tapioca roots. Its many uses include substitution for potato and cornstarch. It is an important raw material in manufacturing sago pearl, monosodium glutamate, fructose, glucose and dextrose. Tapioca starch is mixed with pharmaceuticals to make capsules and tablets, and is also used to make pet products.
It is used in the textile industry for yarn sizing, and in the paper industry for paper pressing, flattening and polishing. It is an essential raw material for glue manufacture. A ccording to the Thai Tapioca Flour Industries Trade Association , 40 percent of Thai tapioca starch remains in the domestic market ,, tons and 60 percent is exported ,, tons. Tapioca chips are chopped, sun-dried cassava. Tapioca chip factories are small-scale enterprises, typically located close to plantations, with simple equipment, mainly a chopper.
Chips are transformed into pellets to reach more uniformity and not to create air pollution caused by dust carried in chips. Nakhon Ratchasima has the highest chip and pellet production in Thailand. Production of chips in this province is greater than the entire chip production in Indonesia. In this province, Bangkok market pellet prices are used as the standard trading index.
The high carbohydrate content of cassava chips is of value for biotechnological conversion, and this utilization will secure a continued future for the cassava chip industry. The pellet industry began a few years after the start of cassava exports to the EU around In addition, during transportation, loading and unloading of chips, the dust generated caused serious air pollution, placing pressure on European importers to improve the nature of cassava products handled by the ports.
Production of pellets involves pressing chips, in an extruder, through a large die. The heat and moisture in chips helps in the formation of a pellet-shaped product, known as a soft pellet.
Later processes involved steam grinding extrusion to create strong pellets on cooling — these were known as hard pellets. Exports of hard pellets began in , by hard pellets dominated pellet production in Thailand, and by were virtually the only pellet product exported to Europe. Raw materials for pellet manufacture cassava chips are purchased from chip factories - pellet factories do not produce chips. Purchase price is directly dependent on the export price of pellets in Bangkok.
The quality of the chips is also an important consideration. The standard quality of chips is:. There are approximately pelleting factories in Thailand, with a total capacity of about 10 million tons per year.
However, the EU quota is only 5 million tons, and this is the sole market for this product. Separation of starch granules from the tuber in as pure a form as possible is essential in the manufacture of cassava flour. The granules are locked in cells together with all the other constituents of the cytoplasm proteins, soluble carbohydrates, fats and so on , which can only be removed by a purification process in the watery phase.
Processing the starch can therefore be divided into the following stages:. Preparation and extraction. Crushing of the cells and separation of the granules from other insoluble matter i. Substitution of pure water for the aqueous solution surrounding the starch granules in the mash obtained in the first stage, as well as the operations of sedimentation and the washing of the starch in tanks and on flour tables, silting, centrifuging, etc.
This method of processing is essential in the preparation of any kind of starch. For cassava, however, because of the relatively small amount of secondary substances, the separation at each stage is performed with great ease. Whereas with maize and other cereals the grinding of the seed and the mechanical separation of the germ and the pericarp from the grain present special problems in stage 1, and the separation of protein and other constituents in stage 2 can only be accomplished with the aid of chemicals, these operations can be reduced to a minimum in cassava preparation.
It is indeed possible to obtain a first-rate flour from the cassava root without special equipment by using only pure water. This makes the processing of cassava flour particularly suitable for rural industries. Most starch factories buy cassava roots from growers in their neighborhood, directly or through agents.
Some factories have own their cassava plantations. Modern processing plants usually contract various growers in the area to supply roots. In such situations, the factory should give financial and technical assistance to the growers, and an agronomist should be assigned to help producers develop better production practices and to conduct control experiments for determining the proper varieties, fertilizers, and methods of insect and disease control for the area.
In many countries, prices are set on the basis of certain starch content, with a discount or a premium for deviations from that level, which is determined according to the locality and the varieties. The starch content in the tubers is determined subjectively by the factory's representative, or objectively by chemical analysis. Subjective evaluation is done by selecting a medium-sized root and snapping it in two.
If the tuber snaps with medium force, the crop is generally regarded as mature and the flesh will appear firm, white and dry. Such roots are considered to have the maximum starch content of 30 percent.
Low starch flesh from immature tubers is usually slightly yellow and, although firm, has a translucent watery core. If considerable force is required to snap the tuber, it is considered to have become woody, and the crop to have passed its prime. Chemical analysis of the tubers is a truer method for the determination of starch content, but it requires a laboratory and qualified technicians. In most cases, root weight is estimated at the farm by simple means which are not entirely accurate and consequently do not reflect the exact yield.
It is therefore advisable to have special weighing bridges in the factories for recording the weights of the roots as well as the final products. In the processing of cassava starch, it is vital to complete the whole process within the shortest time possible. As soon as the roots have been dug up, and during each of the subsequent stages of manufacture, enzymatic processes have a deteriorating effect on the quality of the end product. This are calls for a well-organized supply of roots within relatively short distances of the processing plant and, furthermore, for organization of the stages of processing that will minimize delays in manufacture.
Thus, while simple in principle, the manufacture of good cassava flour requires great care. The roots are normally received from the field as soon as possible after harvest and cannot be stored for more than two days.
Since the presence of woody matter or stones may seriously interfere with the rasping process by stoppage or by breaking the blades, the woody ends of the roots are chopped off with sharp knives before the subsequent processing operations. In small and medium-size mills, the general practice is to remove the peel skin and cortex and to process only the central part of the root, which is of much softer texture.
With the relatively primitive apparatus available and limited power, the processing of the whole root would entail difficulties in rasping and removing dirt, crude fiber and cork particles, whereas comparatively little extra starch would be gained. The structure of the root permits peeling to proceed smoothly by hand it is often done by women and children.
Work starts in the morning as soon as the roots are brought in; as it must be finished as quickly as possible, numerous hands are needed. The roots are cut longitudinally and transversely to a depth corresponding to the thickness of the peel, which can then be easily removed.
Any dirt remaining on the smooth surface of the core of the root can now be washed off without any trouble, and the peeled roots deposited in cement basins, where they remain immersed in river water until taken out for rasping. Frequent treading by foot cleans any loosely adhering dirt from the roots. In larger factories, whole roots are generally processed. The washing here serves to remove the outer skin of the root as well as the adhering dirt.
Provided the root is sufficiently ripe, skin removal may proceed without the use of brushes. Only the outer skin or corky layer is removed, as it is profitable to recover the starch from the cortex. The inner part of the peel represents about 8. The mechanical washer is a perforated, cylindrical tank which is immersed in water. A spiral brush propels the roots while they are subjected to vigorous scrubbing in order to remove all dirt. A centrifugal pump is fitted to one end of the machine and connected to a series of jets arranged along the carrying side of the brush.
These jets produce a countercurrent to the flow of the roots, ensuring that they receive an efficient washing.
Another efficient washer is a rotary drum with an interior pipe, which sprays water onto the roots. The drum is either wooden or perforated metal, about 3 to 4 m long and 1 m in diameter, with horizontal openings; it is mounted inside a concrete tank. In some, rotating paddles are fitted along the axis. Washing is done by the action of water sprayed, assisted by the abrasion of the roots both against one another and against the sides of the cylinder or the paddles. The roots are hand-fed from one end and when they come out at the other they are clean and partially peeled, the action being continuous.
Dirty water and skin are periodically drained out through a small opening in the concrete tank. Some trials in Brazil have attempted the complete peeling of roots for the production of a white starch, and also have used copper, brass or bronze equipment instead of iron, which in contact with wet starch may lead to the production of ferrocyanide the result of a reaction between iron and hydrocyanic acid , which gives the starch a bluish color.
In modern factories, the roots are pre-washed by soaking in water to separate the coarse dirt and then passed through a combined unit for washing and peeling as described above. It is necessary to rupture all cell walls in order to release the starch granules. This can be done by biochemical or mechanical action.
The biochemical method, an old one, allows the roots to ferment to a certain stage; then they are pounded to a pulp and the starch is washed from the pulp with water. This method does not give complete yields and the quality of the resulting starch is inferior.
He has had a long and distinguished academic career having published over academic papers, with a strong focus on starch and carbohydrate chemistry research. Access Online via Elsevier Bolero Ozon. Starch : Chemistry and Technology. James N. BeMiller , Roy L. The third edition of this long-serving successful reference work is a 'must-have' reference for anyone needing or desiring an understanding of the structure, chemistry, properties, production and uses of starches and their derivatives.
Global Starch Industry
This invention relates to an improved type of amylaceous remoistening adhesive and an improved means of utilizing the same. This application is a continuation-in-part of g application Serial No. By the term "amylaceous adhesives" we refer to those types of adhesives which are prepared from starches and starch degradation products such as dextrins or starch gums. By the term "remoistening adhesives" we refer to those types of adhesives which are applied to a paper or fabric surface in aqueous solution or suspension and dried to form a sheet of paper or fabric coated with a potentially adhesive film, which on being remoistened will immediately develop tackiness and act as a suitable adhesive for bonding the paper or fabric to other materials. Although at present large amounts of gummed paper suitable for such purposes as labels, stamp and envelope seals are prepared with dextrin adhesives, dextrin adhesives have never been successful in replacing animal glue adhesives in the field of gummed tape for sealing the heavier types of boxes or for gummed paper or fabric which is to be used for purposes wherein it is required that the adhesive coating on being moistened will develop immediate strong adhesive properties and set up very rapidly to form a bond.
Acid Modification of Sago Hampas for Industrial Purposes
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of numerous glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants as energy storage. It is the most common carbohydrate in human diets and is contained in large amounts in staple foods like potatoes , wheat , maize corn , rice , and cassava. Pure starch is a white, tasteless and odorless powder that is insoluble in cold water or alcohol.
US Cold water dispersible sago starch crosslinked with phosphorus oxychloride, epichlorohydrin, sodium trimetaphosphate, adipic anhydride, or acetic anhydride; pregelatinizing, bleaching; foods; high speed gelation; high strength, elasticity; smooth texture, mouth feel, cuttable; fillings, jellies, pudding. EPA1 Sago-based gelling starches. US Soluble highly branched glucose polymers and their method of production. EPA2 Biochips with surfaces coated with polysaccharide based hydrogels. EPA1 Method for the treatment of starch. CNA Preparation of high-substituted acetylizing starch acetic acid starch. CNC Hydropholic starch derivatives.
Technology Of Starch Manufacture ( Applications, Properties And Compositions With Project Profiles)
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US20020009532A1 - Sago fluidity starch and use thereof - Google Patents
Year of fee payment : 4. Effective date : Year of fee payment : 8. Year of fee payment : The present invention is directed to sago fluidity starch and the use thereof. Such fluidity starches exhibit exceptionally fast gelling properties, high gel strengths, and exceptional elasticity. These properties allow for significantly reduced processing times, including reduced hold times. Further, the higher gel strength allows for reduced starch levels without loss of final product gel strength integrity or texture.
US2215847A - Composition prepared from dextrins - Google Patents
John F. Technology Production Engineering. Glossary of Abbreviations. Design and construction of footings. Foundations and waterproofing. Beams and lintels and their use. Column design and construction. Chimneys and their construction. Fireplace design and construction.
Free Papers. Starch is a soft, white, tasteless powder that is insoluble in cold water, alcohol, or other solvents. The basic chemical formula of the starch molecule is C6H10O5 n.
Sago Palm pp Cite as. Sago pith and sago hampas mainly consist of starch and fiber.
Cassava is frequently cultivated as a temporary shade plant in young plantations of cocoa, coffee, rubber or oil palm. In Thailand, however, it is grown mostly as a sole crop, and the farmer may grow cassava on the same land for ten years or more. If the price of cassava roots drops, the farmer may shift to another crop e.
Contents - Previous - Next. The flour produced from the cassava plant, which on account of its low content of noncarbohydrate constituents might well be called a starch, is known in world trade as tapioca flour. It is used directly, made into a group of baked or gelatinized products or manufactured into glucose, dextrins and other products. Starchy foods have always been one of the staples of the human diet.