Metrics details. Sugarcane is known to be one of the oldest cultivated plants in tropical and subtropical countries. Sugar industries are increasing exponentially to satisfy the growing demand for sugar; whereas, the ethanol distilleries have been rapidly expanding, since bioethanol emerged as an affordable, low carbon footprint and renewable bioenergy. However, inadequately treated and indiscriminate disposal of the effluent from sugarcane industries resulted in extensive soil and water pollutions. Hence, this study aimed at reviewing the sugarcane industrial process with its water consumption rates, and effluent characteristics and its adverse effects on the environment. Finally, the study has gone through the most common wastewater treatment efforts made to minimize the effluent environmental burden.
Dear readers! Our articles talk about typical ways to solve the issue of renting industrial premises, but each case is unique.
If you want to know how to solve your particular problem, please contact the online consultant form on the right or call the numbers on the website. It is fast and free!
Sugarcane biorefineries wastewater: bioremediation technologies for environmental sustainabilityVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Food Waste: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO)
Tomaszewska a , D. Binczarski a , J. Berlowska c , P. Dziugan c , J. Piotrowski d , A. Stanishevsky e and I. E-mail: izabela. This paper presents an overview of alternative uses for products of sugar beet processing, especially sucrose, as chemical raw materials for the production of biodegradable polymers.
Traditionally, sucrose has not been considered as a chemical raw material, because of its use in the food industry and high sugar prices. Beet pulp and beetroot leaves have also not been considered as raw materials for chemical production processes until recently.
However, current changes in the European sugar market could lead to falling demand and overproduction of sucrose. Increases in the production of white sugar will also increase the production of waste biomass, as a result of the processing of larger quantities of sugar beet. This creates an opportunity for the development of new chemical technologies based on the use of products of sugar beet processing as raw materials.
Promising methods for producing functionalized materials include the acidic hydrolysis of sugars sucrose, biomass polysaccharides , the catalytic dehydration of monosaccharides to HMF followed by catalytic oxidation of HMF to FDCA and polymerization to biodegradable polymers. The technologies reviewed in this article will be of interest both to industry and science. Consumption of sugar in the EU is rising steadily, mainly as a result of increasing immigration and the growing population of Europe.
However, sugar beet growers and sugar producers face ever greater difficulties. Sweeteners are also likely to become more competitive. The potential effects of these trends can already be observed in the USA, where HFCS is the predominant sweetener used in beverages, sauces and other food products.
The most competitive companies therefore intend to increase export production and look for new markets. However, these actions will have very low profit margins, and growth will be achieved by optimizing processes, rather than through additional investment.
Less competitive manufacturers are likely to be eliminated or absorbed by the more powerful companies. The market is thus becoming increasingly difficult for producers of white sugar derived from sugar beet. An alternative use of white sugar is for the production of bioethanol. However, in the competitive market conditions made the European bioethanol industry based on white sugar and sugar beet juice fermentation economically unprofitable. Reasons for this included a reduction in petroleum prices and the falling price of cereals, from which bioethanol is also produced.
It is estimated that, unless petroleum prices rise significantly, levels of bioethanol production from white sugar or sugar beet juice will at best remain stable. Producing larger quantities of white sugar will also result in the production of more bio-waste from technological processes. This requires the development of new technologies for using waste from sugar factories, in addition to uses as feed or green manure in agriculture. In view of the current and projected changes in the sugar market, producers are looking at developing alternative business models.
This is a task not only for sales and marketing specialists, but also for chemists, bio-technologists and innovators, who may be able to find unconventional applications for sucrose. For economic reasons, sucrose has never been considered as a chemical raw material. However, in the context of falling prices and surplus capacity in the sugar industry, sucrose could be used in the production of valuable chemical compounds, such as biodegradable polymers.
Sucrose is extracted from sugar beet using hot water. This results in raw juice, which is then purified, filtered and concentrated by cyclic rinsing and evaporation. To obtain the final product, the thick juice is crystallized.
The resulting white sugar is then recrystallized, which ultimately leads to the production of high quality refined sugar Fig. Various sugar beet products are produced at different stages of beet processing. This is used as a heat source and, circulating in a closed system, can be used repeatedly to provide a large proportion of the heat demands of a sugar production line. Following the extraction of sucrose, the sugar beet pulp and beet splinters are used primarily in animal feed or biogas production.
Attempts are also being made to use beet leaves in the production of methanol. Sugar products can be processed in a variety of ways, to produce not only sugar for food or feed additives but also valuable chemicals that can be used in biofuels, synthetic materials and pharmaceuticals.
Ozonation is an effective way to stabilize new kinds of fermentation media used in the biotechnological production of liquid fuel additives. Hydrolysates of sucrose are also being considered as alternative raw materials for the production of biodegradable plastics, 11 fuels or fuel bio-components. Despite its great potential, it is often economically unviable to use sucrose as a raw material in biotechnological processes.
In order to reduce costs, intermediates of white sugar production, such as thin or thick sugar beet juices, can be used instead of crystallized sucrose. Unfortunately, bio-hydrogen is not yet competitive as an energy source against traditional fossil fuels.
Most efforts to lower production costs in comparison with fossil fuels have focused on using waste from various industries as raw material. The production of bio-hydrogen now poses few challenges, but technical aspects such separation of pure hydrogen from gas mixture and the distribution of the finished fuel storage, transport require further development.
If suitable solutions could be found, this could lead to alternative fuels becoming economically viable. The production of first-generation raw materials takes up agricultural space and uses crops that could otherwise be consumed as food.
It also requires a large amount of water. Unfortunately, lignocellulosic biomass is not as easy to process as first-generation feedstock, and requires multi-step processing which increases the final cost of the bioethanol produced. Unfortunately, third-generation methods are still very expensive, and commercialization faces many difficulties. Regardless of the raw material from which sugars sucrose, glucose, fructose, etc. Anaerobic bacteria capable of converting glucose, fructose and sucrose to ethanol, such as Zymomonas mobilis , can be used for this purpose.
Many factors can affect the proper functioning of bacteria, including the ethanol that is produced. The resulting ethanol may inhibit the action of the microorganisms, and it is therefore necessary to remove it continuously from the system — by evaporation, selective adsorption or simply by extraction into the organic phase.
The great advantages of using microorganisms in biochemical processes include the high enzyme selectivity and the mild reaction conditions. It is therefore possible to produce the products desired with extremely high yields.
Unfortunately, lignin cannot be easily processed biochemically, so lignocellulosic raw materials, used for the production of bioethanol, require pre-treatment such as thermal, acid or enzymatic hydrolysis.
Due to its complexity, the biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol is still not economically viable, because the price is higher than that of bioethanol obtained through the fermentation of first-generation raw materials. Research should therefore focus on increasing the efficiency of the initial decomposition stage, on reducing the cost of using enzymes and on improving their reusability.
It is also important to minimize the costs of pre-treatment, hydrolysis and fermentation, and to make the whole process work continuously. Lactic acid is produced at the industrial scale via the fermentation of saccharides e. However, certain studies have also demonstrated the possibility of using agricultural by-products. Inexpensive raw materials, such as starch or molasses, have been used to replace pure sugars in LA production processes.
The high content of sugars in the molasses makes it a good fermentation medium for different kinds of bacteria capable of lactic fermentation Table 1 , such as Lactobacillus bulgaricus 59 or Lactobacillus casei. Lignocelulose biomass, such as sugar beet pulp, is another widely available by-product of the sugar industry, and is considered as a potential source of sugar for lactic fermentation. Lactic acid bacteria convert the available saccharides directly and selectively into LA homofermentative conversion or produce by-products such as carbon dioxide, acetic acid, acetaldehyde and ethanol heterofermentative transformation.
Depending on the need and preferred properties of the final fermentation product, suitable strains of bacteria should be selected for the fermentation of sugars. In the chemical process, a racemic mixture is always obtained that is optically inactive. The cost of raw materials is one of the key factors that determine the economic viability of fermentation processes. Pure glucose, sucrose and starch are expensive feedstocks for the production of LA.
Their replacement with inexpensive industrial waste from sugar processing could cut the costs of LA production. Moreover, finding economical and environmentally-friendly uses for by-products of food processing furthers the aims of sustainable development in the food industry. Monosaccharides, such as ketoses and aldoses, show mutarotation, as a result of which their cyclic forms can change from one into another, by creating hemiacetals.
The formation of free aldehyde has been confirmed by polarographic studies. After purification and separation from interfering compounds, monosaccharides can be subjected to various chemical processes. In many cases, the use of crystalline sucrose avoids the need for pre-treatment. Sucrose obtained from sugar factories is a pure compound As a consequence, it is not necessary to remove other substances such as lignocellulosic compounds in subsequent processes, or to use pre-purification procedures.
Sucrose can be converted easily into monosaccharides by hydrolysis using acid or heterogeneous catalysts Fig. Homogeneous catalysts, such as nitric acid, can be used for the oxidation of sugars. With each acid, the reaction proceeds slightly differently, but always involves a direct oxidant attack on the available carbonyl group.
The main advantages of these processes are the ease with which the catalyst can be separated from the reaction mixture and the higher selectivity of the transformations, resulting in fewer by-products. The use of stable and highly selective heterogeneous catalysts enables the chemical synthesis of aldonic acids under mild conditions. Such processes are environmentally friendly and competitive with traditional chemical or more expensive enzymatic methods.
Mechanisms for the catalytic oxidation of sugars have been the subject of research for many years. In the case of bimetallic systems, the addition of a second metal increases selectivity and the activity of the entire catalytic system.
Two metals may create intermetallic compounds on the surface e. Knowing exactly which type of intermetallic structure forms on the surface may be key to understanding the function of metal promotors in this process. Nitric acid can also be used for the preparation of aldaric acids.
This reaction has been known since the s. In chemical synthesis, uronic acids are derived from O -glycosides and O -furanosides. Aldoses may also be used, but in this case it is necessary to protect the secondary hydroxyl groups in order to selectively oxidize the primary group. Sugar acids have a wide variety of possible applications.
Aldonic acids are used in the food or agriculture industries for the removal heavy metals from water or soil ; in cosmetics as anti-microbial agents and in the plastics industry as silicone surfactants. Uses of uronic acids include in biomedicine, as precursors of polymers; aldaric acids are used as corrosion inhibitors; cross linkers are used in hydrogels; and monomers are used in the production of plastics.
An award-winning team of journalists, designers, and videographers who tell brand stories through Fast Company's distinctive lens. Leaders who are shaping the future of business in creative ways. New workplaces, new food sources, new medicine--even an entirely new economic system. But the problem was the inspiration for the company, which launched six years ago.
Use of sugarcane industrial by-products for improving sugarcane productivity and soil health
Sugarcane industries are age-old industrial practices in India which contribute a significant amount of by-products as waste. Handling and management of these by-products are huge task, because those require lot of space for storage. However, it provides opportunity to utilize these by-products in agricultural crop production as organic nutrient source. Therefore, it is attempted to review the potential of sugar industries by-products, their availability, and use in agricultural production.
Paturau 1. This gloomy prospect explains, to a large degree, the renewed interest in the byproducts of the sugarcane industry which has developed in the last ten years and which has shown that the optimal use of byproducts can provide a non-negligible support to the sugarcane industry, although it could not, by itself, completely redress the difficult situation sugar is presently experiencing. The four main byproducts of the sugarcane industry are cane tops, bagasse, filter muds and molasses Figure 1. If we accept that the present world production of sugarcane has reached the 60 million tonnes level, then the quantities of these byproducts produced yearly are approximately the following:. Reliable statistics are not available to show the detailed end uses of these byproducts on a world basis, but although their utilization will be considered later in more detail, as a very rough picture of their trade we can say that at present cane tops and filter muds are largely ignored; that bagasse is used internally mainly as fuel to generate steam in the sugarcane factories and a small fraction to produce pulp and board; and that molasses is exported either as such for animal feed or after transformation as rum, potable alcohol or industrial alcohol.
Agave bagasse is a similar material that consists of the tissue of the blue agave after extraction of the sap. For every 10 tonnes of sugarcane crushed, a sugar factory produces nearly three tonnes of wet bagasse. Since bagasse is a by-product of the cane sugar industry, the quantity of production in each country is in line with the quantity of sugarcane produced. The high moisture content of bagasse, typically 40—50 percent, is detrimental to its use as a fuel. In general, bagasse is stored prior to further processing. For electricity production, it is stored under moist conditions, and the mild exothermic process that results from the degradation of residual sugars dries the bagasse pile slightly. For paper and pulp production, it is normally stored wet in order to assist in removal of the short pith fibres, which impede the paper making process, as well as to remove any remaining sugar.
Being an agricultural economy, biomass energy potential in Pakistan is highly promising. Pakistan is experiencing a severe energy crisis these days which is resulting in adverse long term economic and social problems. The electricity and gas shortages have directly impacted the common man, industry and commercial activities. The high cost of energy mix is the main underlying reason behind the power crisis.
In response to diminishing supplies as well as the environmental hazards posed by fossil fuels and petrochemicals, interest and demand for green, sustainable biofuels and bio-based chemicals are soaring. Biomass may be the solution. It is an abundant carbon-neutral renewable feedstock that can be used for the production of fuels and chemicals. Currently, biorefineries use corn, soybeans, and sugarcane for bioethanol and biodiesel production; however, there are many challenges facing biorefineries, preventing biomass from reaching its full potential. This book provides a comprehensive review of bioprocessing technologies that use lignocellulosic biomass for the production of biofuels, biochemicals, and biopolymers. It begins with an overview of integrated biorefineries. Next, it covers:. All the chapters have been written and edited by leading experts in bioprocessing and biorefining technologies. Contributions are based on a thorough review of the literature as well as the authors' firsthand experience developing and working with bioprocessing technologies. By setting forth the current state of the technology and pointing to promising new directions in research, Bioprocessing Technologies in Biorefinery for Sustainable Production of Fuels, Chemicals, and Polymers will enable readers to move towards large-scale, sustainable, and economical production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals.
Sugarcane industries are age-old industrial practices in India which contribute a significant amount of by-products as waste. Handling and management of these by-products are huge task, because those require lot of space for storage. However, it provides opportunity to utilize these by-products in agricultural crop production as organic nutrient source. Therefore, it is attempted to review the potential of sugar industries by-products, their availability, and use in agricultural production. A large number of research experiments and literatures have been surveyed and critically analyzed for the effect of sugarcane by-products on crop productivity and soil properties. Application of sugar industries by-products, such as press mud and bagasse, to soil improves the soil chemical, physical, and biological properties and enhanced the crop quality and yield. A huge possibility of sugarcane industries by-products can be used in agriculture to cut down the chemical fertilizer requirement. If all the press mud is recycled through agriculture about 32,, 28,, 14,, , , , and tonnes t of N, P, K, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, can be available and that helps in saving of costly chemical fertilizers. Application of sugarcane industries by-products reduces the recommended dose of fertilizers and improves organic matter of soil during the crop production. It can also be used in combination with inorganic chemical fertilizers and can be packed and marketed along with commercial fertilizer for a particular cropping system.
In the global sugar industry, total sugar production in is million metric tons. Throughout the worldwide sugar industry, sugar production is increasing with the development of countries. The development of sugar industry certainly boosts the production of sugarcane. In , the worldwide sugarcane production has reached about 1, million metric tons. Brazil was the largest sugarcane producer, which produced million metric tons. India was the second largest producer with million metric tons, and the third largest producer, China produced with million metric tons.
Account Options Login. Commerce Reports , Volume 4. United States.
Account Options Fazer login. Commerce Reports , Volume 4. United States.
Было бы неплохо услышать от тебя что-нибудь приятное на дорогу. В конце концов, этот день может оказаться самым важным из всех, проведенных мной в Изумрудном городе. - А ты уверен, что Арчи и в самом деле собирается подыскать тебе - Безусловно, - ответил Ричард. - Для этого и намечается нынешняя встреча.
Сегодня одна из наших цариц будет класть яйца. Ее прислуга считает, что событие произойдет менее чем через терт. Верховный Оптимизатор одобрила мою просьбу и разрешила тебе присутствовать.