Healthy teeth and gums make a person feel confident and fit. As people go about their daily routines and with different eating and drinking habits, the tooth enamel turns yellowish or gets stained. Polishing traditionally has been associated with the prophylaxis procedure in most dental practices, which patients know and expect. However, with overzealous use of polishing procedure, there is wearing of the superficial tooth structure. This would lead to more accumulation of local deposits. Also, it takes a long time for the formation of the fluoride-rich layer of the tooth again.
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Industrial Abrasives & FinishingVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How-to Make An Abrasive Polishing Buff for a Rotary Tool Tutorial
Healthy teeth and gums make a person feel confident and fit. As people go about their daily routines and with different eating and drinking habits, the tooth enamel turns yellowish or gets stained. Polishing traditionally has been associated with the prophylaxis procedure in most dental practices, which patients know and expect.
However, with overzealous use of polishing procedure, there is wearing of the superficial tooth structure. This would lead to more accumulation of local deposits. Also, it takes a long time for the formation of the fluoride-rich layer of the tooth again. The article here, gives an insight on the different aspects of the polishing process along with the different methods and agents used for the same. Tooth polishing is a procedure carried out as a part of oral prophylaxis in most dental practices.
It is an act of smoothening the tooth surfaces to make it glossy and lustrous. Although the term polishing has been used to describe the professional removal of soft deposits and stains from the tooth surfaces, in reality, this includes both cleaning and polishing. They simply like the look and feel of polished teeth. Taste and smell are the next important factors from the patient's point of view. Patients prefer this procedure over debridement with instruments for many reasons.
An important factor is that patients respond positively to the smooth and clean feel that polishing produces. Furthermore, it is less painful and stressful than scaling; and easier for the patient to understand and tolerate. Polishing produces tangible benefits, which the patients can see and feel.
Though, the history of tooth polishing was mentioned in the Roman and Greek writings, it was only with Pierre Fauchard, the Father of Modern Dentistry, who introduced it for removal of dental stains with the use of finely ground coral, egg shells, ginger, or salt. Fones, the Founder of Dental Hygiene, started training his auxiliaries to provide coronal tooth polishing in the last century. It was observed that stains were not the etiologic factor for any destructive process and hence, removal of stains was for esthetic, not for health reason.
But worldwide, many dental hygiene schools now recommend selective polishing as a standard protocol instead of including polishing at every professional maintenance appointment. Several terms are being used in relation to the practice of cleansing and polishing teeth.
The term coronal polishing may also encompass cleansing. Superficial polishing - it is a term related to the polishing of the crown of the tooth. It is now considered as a cosmetic procedure with minimal therapeutic benefit. Selective polishing - is another word often used by hygienists. It is used to indicate that cleansing and polishing procedures are only provided when justified by the tooth surfaces that have visible stains after scaling, and oral debridement is complete.
Selective polishing is also known as extrinsic stain removal or selective stain removal. It means cleansing and polishing are omitted on surfaces already stain free. Today the focus of tooth polishing is to give a highly polished and aesthetic appearance by removing bacterial plaque biofilms and extrinsic stains. But before we do polishing, one needs to identify the type of stains and also understand the contraindications for tooth polishing.
It is very important to identify the type of stain so as to determine which stains can be removed and which product to use. Stains can be broadly classified into-endogenous and exogenous stains. Endogenous stains can be further divided into developmental, drug induced, environmental or due to enamel hypoplasia. The exogenous stains are due to various foods and harmful habits and are usually seen as different colors: Green, orange, brown and black.
The endogenous stains cannot be removed by simple polishing. However, the exogenous stains can be removed by scaling and polishing. Use proper technique to reduce unnecessary abrasion on the exposed enamel and dentine surfaces.
When polishing a restorative material, care has to be taken to use a softer abrasive particle than the restorative material. As prophylaxis paste can cause incidental damage while removing the dental stains, they should be chosen carefully. Those with a larger particle size, that is, coarse or medium, are very effective in extrinsic stain removal, but they can also cause the most abrasion and damage to the tooth surface. In fact, excessive abrasion scratches the enamel, resulting in a less polished appearance and ultimately, contributing to an increased rate of exogenous stain reformation and bacterial plaque retention.
The factors that contribute to the overall efficiency of stain removal from the tooth surfaces include:. The time spent polishing each stained area.
Unfortunately, each of these factors contributes directly to the tooth enamel and dentin damage via abrasion. The purpose of the abrasive agent is to clean and to make the tooth surfaces smooth. The abrasive agents present in the polishing paste are usually the same as those in dentifrices.
However, the major difference being the particle size of the abrasive; where the size is more in professional prophylaxis pastes as compared to dentifrices. Prophylaxis polishing pastes available in the market usually combine abrasives with a binder, humectants, coloring agent, preservative, and flavoring agent. Harder, rough-shaped, large, particle size compounds produce more abrasive action than particles that are soft, smooth-shaped and small.
The most commonly used abrasives in polishing pastes are flour of pumice and calcium carbonate. Other abrasive particles used in commercial prophylaxis polishing pastes include aluminum oxide alumina , silicon carbide, aluminum silicate, silicon dioxide, carbide compounds, garnet, feldspar, zirconium silicate, zirconium oxide, boron, and calcium carbonate.
Others include the emery, silica, and perlite. Pumice is a light gray, highly siliceous material produced by volcanic activity. The flour of pumice is a very finely grounded derivative which is used for polishing of tooth enamel, gold foil, dental amalgam and acrylic resins.
It produces minimal scratches and results in a highly reflective surface. However, it is frequently used as a component of dental prophylaxis paste. Manufacturers generally do not disclose the amount of ingredients in their polishing pastes.
However, it is generally known that pumice and glycerin are the most commonly used ingredients in commercially prepared polishing pastes. Some commercially prepared polishing pastes may contain fluorides, while some may have added advantages [ Table 1 ]. Pumice flour has been tested for its effectiveness in stain removal on enamel. The mean abrasive depth of enamel with pumice flour is significant These abrasives have been compared to conventional abrasive agents.
Lutz et al. Similarly, it was reported that a paste containing perlite can polish teeth by removing surface stains without causing damage to either the tooth structure or to the soft tissues. The process of polishing has to proceed from coarse abrasion cleaning to fine abrasion polishing , with the use of a series of finer and finer abrasives.
Fine grit is used routinely; medium or coarse pastes are only needed in situations of heavy stain. As the polishing process proceeds from coarse to fine abrasion, scratches smaller than 0. These scratches appear smooth and shiny as they are smaller than the wavelength of visible light. A single polishing agent cannot be used for all surfaces like tooth enamel, root surfaces or restorations, as they all have different hardness values.
A polishing agent should be selected on the basis of their hardness in such a way that the hardness of the polishing agent should be less than that of the surface to be polished [ Table 2 ]. However, many of the abrasives used in prophylaxis pastes are 10 times or more harder than the surfaces they are used to polish.
Different polishers are available: Manual and engine driven. The manual polishers are hand-held devices whereas; the engine driven uses hand pieces to do polishing. The most commonly used method of tooth polishing is with the use of a mechanical device along with the polishing agent.
It is a hand-held device with an orange-wood point. This instrument can be used on various aspects of teeth. It rubs the abrasive agent against the tooth surface with a wedge-shaped, tapered, or pointed wooden point. It requires more hand strength for instrumentation and takes a longer time for polishing teeth.
They are a good option for interproximal areas and line angles. However, they are highly abrasive. Care has to be taken to avoid cutting or abrading the surrounding soft tissues during polishing. These are widely used amongst dental professionals and dental hygienists for their efficiency and efficacy.
These polishers are attached to the appropriate hand piece or prophy-angle, which has either straight or contra-angled shanks. They can be either disposable or reusable after sterilization. A rubber cup or brush is attached to the prophy-angle. The handpiece should always be used at a steady slow pace of — rpm. Christensen and Bangerter identified that the rubber cup contacted each tooth surface for an average of 4. They can be used in most clinical applications as patient compliance and acceptance are high.
In patients having allergies to latex or fluorides; rubber-cup latex free products, prophy pastes and pumice slurry without fluoride should be used. Nowadays, air powder polishing devices have overcome conventional rubber cup polishing paste systems for supragingival plaque removal as it reaches surfaces that are inaccessible to a rotary device. Abrasives like aluminum trihydroxide, calcium sodium phosphosilicate, calcium carbonate and glycine are also used in air polishers.
By activating the foot control, the handpiece nozzle would propel the slurry on the tooth surface. The nozzle should be held 3—4 mm from the tooth surface. Holding the nozzle farther from the tooth surface minimizes the abrasive action and increases the aerosol. The tip should be angled diagonally, with the spray directed towards the middle one third of the exposed tooth, using a constant circular motion, interproximal to interproximal sweeping or paint brush motion.
However, studies have reported that exposed cementum and dentin structures are vulnerable to loss with the use of air powder polisher. Petersilka et al. Earlier, air dent machine which uses alumina or dolomite was used. However, currently the redesigned air-polishing device APD , the prophy-jet, which uses a pressurized slurry of sodium bicarbonate with tri-calcium phosphate added up to 0.
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For each weld configuration and material there is an abrasive wheel that ensures optimal grinding results. The first step in determining the right wheel for the job is to identify the material being welded. Most abrasives manufacturers offer wheels made of three abrasive materials:. When choosing a wheel for an application, also consider the hardness of the material you'll be grinding. To understand this, let's look at how abrasive grains and bonding agents work on a wheel. During grinding, dulled grains in the abrasive wheel create friction and heat that melt the resin bond that holds the abrasive. This releases the dulled grain and exposes a new, sharp one.
How to choose the correct abrasive
Cookies are used for statistical purposes and to improve the site. Mechanical preparation is the most common method of preparing materialographic specimens for microscopic examination. The specific requirement of the prepared surface is determined by the particular type of analysis or examination. Specimens can be prepared to the perfect finish, the true structure, or the preparation can be stopped when the surface is acceptable for a specific examination.
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The studies regarding various additives, which were characterized in detail in the literature, were mainly based on thorough physicochemical and microstructural analysis as well as the determination of basic strength and thermos-mechanic parameters. The attempt to implement alternative cross-linking agents, which would result in the limited release of volatile organic compounds, is also of great importance in terms of production of environmentally friendly final products. A subsequent aim is to attract the attention of a wide range of readers and popularize the topic associated with conventional abrasive materials and next-generation abrasive compositions. Abrasive Technology - Characteristics and Applications.
Let us help you by filling out the form below or call For local assistance, contact one of our distributors. Powered by ChronoForms - ChronoEngine. With dedicated in-house production facilities, Ohio Tool Works offers a complete line of abrasive honing stones to meet your precision honing needs and to fit your existing honing equipment — regardless of manufacturer. With abrasive materials ranging from aluminum oxide and silicon carbide to diamond and CBN, our honing stones are available in a full assortment of bond types, grain sizes, custom and industry standard mounts. Start by selecting your tooling type below or use our Product Selector to re-order OTW or Sunnen replacement honing stones or to find your desired product more quickly. Need help or want personalized service? Our customer service team is here to assist. Call
The term grain types in the area of abrasives signifies the different types of minerals used during the manufacture of abrasive tools. Since the essential portion of the grinding process, namely the machining of the material to be processed, is performed by these minerals, the grain type used has a major impact on the suitability range and performance of a abrasive. An overview of the different grain properties and the typical wear characteristics of the most commonly used grain types is given in the diagram below. Grit is responsible for stock removal. When selecting the correct grit two properties are particularly important:. All Klingspor grit types are produced synthetically. This ensures a consistently high quality product. Four different grit types are used with coated abrasives:. In addition, there are also so-called grit agglomerates.
Grinding Wheel and Other Abrasive Materials Review Questions Flashcards Preview
Recent Trends in Mechanical Engineering pp Cite as. Different techniques used to measure the hardness of the grinding wheel based on the grinding wheel surface of various grain sizes and the bond contents present in the wheel structure. Two different techniques are identified to accept entirely their capacity to differentiate the wheels of various commercial hardness. In production industries, hardness of the grinding wheels is one of the key parameters which shows its strength of the grinding wheel. During the operating condition dynamic , is the first method to easily relate in the workshop, quite more complex to analyze. One more technique in research studies of grinding wheel hardness obtained through statistical analysis result. This research highlights the further improvement of hardness of grinding wheel by combining two different abrasive materials Al 2 O 3 with Boron nitride.
View Product. Quality abrasive solutions for any industry Smirdex creates high-tech and top-quality abrasive materials and relative accessories, meeting the evolving and demanding needs of a vast variety of professionals. We constantly invest in research and development so as to ensure that our products will always be a step ahead of competition.
An abrasive is a material, often a mineral , that is used to shape or finish a workpiece through rubbing  which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away by friction. While finishing a material often means polishing it to gain a smooth, reflective surface, the process can also involve roughening as in satin, matte or beaded finishes. In short, the ceramics which are used to cut, grind and polish other softer materials are known as abrasives.
No eBook available Industrial Press Inc. Logically organized, this self-contained resource starts with a description of abrasives and bonded abrasive cutting tools; then moves on to thermal analyses of the grinding process for conventional, creep feed, and superabrasive grinding; and ends with methods for enhancing and optimizing of grinding operations, simulation of grinding processes, and computer control of grinding machines. The perfect reference for practicing engineers involved in the grinding process, it will also be useful for researchers working in the field.
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