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This article attempts to detail the traditional division into types of maintenance, noting that this division, apart from a simple academic concept or training purposes, it is not more useful.
It is not possible to determine that a particular machine, the type of maintenance to be applied is one of the traditional corrective, scheduled, predictive, etc. It is more practical to apply another concept: the maintenance model. Different models of maintenance defined as a mixture of different types of maintenance in the proportions necessary for each equipment.
Types of maintenance. Traditionally, 5 types of maintenance have been distinguished, which are differentiated by the nature of the tasks that they include:. This division of types of maintenance has the disadvantage of that each equipment needs a mix of each of these maintenance types, so that we can not think of applying one of them to a particular equipment.
Thus, for a particular engine, we will take care of lubrication periodic preventive maintenance ; if it is required, we will measure the vibrations or temperature predictive maintenance ;we also may qualify for an annual tune-up overhaul and we will repair the faults coming up corrective maintenance. The most suitable mixture of these types of maintenances will dictate to us strict reasons linked to the cost of production losses in a stop that equipment, the repair cost, environmental impact, safety and quality of a product or a service, among others.
The disadvantage, therefore, of the anterior division is that it is not able to give a clear answer to this question: Which is the maintenance that should be applied to each of the equipment that make up a particular plant?
To answer this question it is convenient to define the concept of Maintenance Models. A Maintenance Model is a mixture of the previous types of maintenance in certain proportions, and it responds appropriately to the needs of a particular equipment. We think that every equipment will need a different mix of different types of maintenance, a particular mix of tasks, so that maintenance models will be as many as existing equipment. But this is not entirely correct.
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Solar Thermal Power Plants Collection CCP consists of 4 books analyzing the operating principles, key equipment and systems, operation and maintenance of these plants. It is undoubtedly the most comprehensive and careful about solar thermal power plants can be found in the market. More information. Facebook Twitter YouTube. Menu Home Start here.. Types of maintenance Traditionally, 5 types of maintenance have been distinguished, which are differentiated by the nature of the tasks that they include: Corrective maintenance: The set of tasks is destined to correct the defects to be found in the different equipment and that are communicated to the maintenance department by users of the same equipment.
Preventive Maintenance: Its mission is to maintain a level of certain service on equipment, programming the interventions of their vulnerabilities in the most opportune time.
It is used to be a systematic character, that is, the equipment is inspected even if it has not given any symptoms of having a problem. Predictive Maintenance: It pursues constantly know and report the status and operational capacity of the installations by knowing the values of certain variables, which represent such state and operational ability.
To apply this maintenance, it is necessary to identify physical variables temperature, vibration, power consumption, etc. Which variation is indicative of problems that may be appearing on the equipment. Zero Hours Maintenance Overhaul : The set of tasks whose goal is to review the equipment at scheduled intervals before appearing any failure, either when the reliability of the equipment has decreased considerably so it is risky to make forecasts of production capacity.
This review is based on leaving the equipment to zero hours of operation, that is, as if the equipment were new. These reviews will replace or repair all items subject to wear. The aim is to ensure, with high probability, a good working time fixed in advance. It consists of a series of elementary tasks data collections, visual inspections, cleaning, lubrication, retightening screws,… for which no extensive training is necessary, but perhaps only a brief training.
The difficulty of finding a practical application to the types of maintenance This division of types of maintenance has the disadvantage of that each equipment needs a mix of each of these maintenance types, so that we can not think of applying one of them to a particular equipment.
Maintenance models Each of the models presented below include several of the previous types of maintenance at the indicated rate. Moreover, all of them include two activities: visual inspections and lubrication.
This is because it is demonstrated that these tasks realization in any equipment is profitable. Even in the simplest model Corrective Model , in which virtually the equipment is left on its own and we do not deal with it until a fault occurs. It is advisable to observe it at least once a month, lubricate it with suitable products to their characteristics. Visual inspections virtually no cost money these inspections will be included in a range where we have to look at other nearby equipment, so it will not mean we have to allocate resources specifically for this function.
This inspection allows us to detect faults in an early stage and its resolution will generally be cheaper as soon as detected. Lubrication is always profitable. Although it does represent a cost lubricant and labour , it is generally so low that it is more than warranted, since a malfunction due to a lack of lubrication will always involve a greater expense than the corresponding to lubricant application.
With this remark, we can already define the various possible maintenance models. It is applied, as we will see, to equipments with the lowest level of criticality, whose faults are not a problem, economically or technically. In this type of equipment is not profitable to devote more resources and efforts. It includes the activities of the previous model, and also this model carries out a series of tests that will determine a subsequent action.
If after testing we discovered an anomaly, we will schedule an intervention; on the contrary, if everything is correct, we will not act on the equipment. This maintenance model is valid in equipment not to very used, or for equipment that despite being important in the production system the probability of failure is low.
This model includes a set of tasks we will perform no matter what is the condition of the equipment , also we will perform some measurements and tests to decide whether to carry out other tasks of greater magnitude, and finally, we will repair faults that arise. It is a model widely used in equipment of medium availability, of some importance in the production system whose failures cause some disruption.
It is important to note that equipment subjected to a systematic maintenance model does not have to have all its tasks with a fixed schedule. Just a equipment with this model of maintenance can have systematic tasks that are carried out regardless of the time it have been operated or state of the elements on which it works.
It is the main difference with the previous two models in which to perform a maintenance task should be some sign of failure. An example of equipment subjected to this maintenance model is a discontinuous reactor, in which the tasks that must react are introduced at once, the reaction takes place, and then the reaction product is extracted before making a new load. Regardless of this reactor is doubled or not, when operating should be reliable, so it is warranted a series of tasks regardless of whether any signs of failure have been arose.
It is the most demanding and exhaustive model of them. It is applied to that equipment that under no circumstances may suffer a breakdown or malfunction. The reason for such high level of availability is generally high cost in production due to a fault. With a demand so high, there is no time to stop the equipment if the maintenance requires it corrective, preventive, systematic. To maintain this equipment is necessary to use predictive maintenance techniques that allow us to know the status of the equipment when is working, and scheduled shutdowns, which supposes a complete overhaul, with a frequency usually annually or higher.
This review will replace, in general, all parts subject to wear or failure probability over the years parts with a lifetime less than two years. These reviews are prepared well in advance and not have to be exactly the same every year. Since in this model the corrective maintenance is not included, that is, the aim should be zero breakdowns on this equipment; usually there is no time to properly address the issues that occur, being desirable in many cases quick provisional repairs that will maintain the equipment working until the next overhaul.
Therefore, the Annual Overhaul must include the resolution of all those provisional repairs that have had to be made throughout the year. When designing the Maintenance Plan should be taken into account two important considerations affecting some equipment in particular.
Firstly, some equipment are subjected to legal rules that regulate their maintenance, forcing them to perform certain activities with an established frequency. These two aspects should be assessed when trying to determine the maintenance model that we should apply to an equipment. Some equipment are subjected to rules or regulations by the Administration.
Above all, there are equipment that are hazardous to people or the environment. The Administration requires the completion of a series of tasks, tests and inspections, and some of them must be performed by companies duly authorized to carry them out. These tasks must necessarily be incorporated into the Maintenance Plan of the equipment, whatever model you decide to apply.
When we talk about a specialist, we refer to an individual or a company specialized in a particular equipment. As we said, we must turn to a specialist when:. If there are these circumstances, some or all of maintenance work must be outsourced to specialized companies.
The subcontracted maintenance to a specialist is usually the most expensive alternative, as the company offering it is aware that not compete. The prices are not market prices, but monopoly prices.
You should try to avoid it as far as possible by cost increase and higher external dependence that it involves. The most reasonable way to avoid this is to develop a training plan that includes specific training for those equipment that do not have enough knowledge also acquired the necessary technical means. What is TPM? L
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A tool is an object used to extend the ability of an individual to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use simple tools , only human beings, whose use of stone tools dates back hundreds of millennia , use tools to make other tools. The set of tools required to perform different tasks that are part of the same activity is called gear or equipment. While one may apply the term tool loosely to many things that are means to an end e. If repeated use wears part of the tool down like a knife blade , it may be possible to restore it; if it wears the tool out or breaks it, the tool must be replaced. Thus tool falls under the taxonomic category implement , and is on the same taxonomic rank as instrument , utensil , device , or ware. Anthropologists believe that the use of tools was an important step in the evolution of mankind. Stone artifacts only date back to about 2.
TYPES OF MAINTENANCE
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Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to colour a surface to produce an image, text, or design. Ink is used for drawing or writing with a pen, brush, or quill. Thicker inks, in paste form, are used extensively in letterpress and lithographic printing. Ink can be a complex medium, composed of solvents, pigments, dyes, resins, lubricants, solubilizers, surfactants, particulate matter, fluorescents, and other materials. Backed by a strong demand from key end user segments such as package printing, newsprint, publishing and other commercial printing, the printing ink market in India has registered strong growth over the years. The printing ink industry is fragmented with hundreds of manufacturers and a large number of players in the unorganised sector. Printing ink sector in India witnessed a growth of around 7.
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Since our founding in , John Deere has delivered products and services to support those linked to the land. Read about our past, what we learn from it, and how we use it to improve every day. In response, Deere fashions a highly polished steel mold board from a broken sawblade.
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