The FDA monitors and regulates levels of lead in certain foods, foodwares, dietary supplements, and cosmetics , because of its potential to cause serious health problems. Lead in the soil can be naturally occurring, but a lot of it comes from industrial uses and environmental contamination. Though most intentional uses of lead are now banned in the United States, previously lead was used in a variety of products and processes. For example, lead was added to household paints, used in soldering plumbing and cans, and added to gasoline and pesticides. Lead is still often used in products made in other countries.
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This white solid is a trimer of cyanamide , with a 1,3,5-triazine skeleton. Melamine can be combined with formaldehyde and other agents to produce melamine resins. Such resins are characteristically durable thermosetting plastic used in high pressure decorative laminates such as Formica , melamine dinnerware, laminate flooring, and dry erase boards.
Melamine foam is used as insulation, soundproofing material and in polymeric cleaning products, such as Magic Eraser. Melamine is sometimes illegally added to food products in order to increase the apparent protein content. It is also an irritant when inhaled or in contact with the skin or eyes.
While not legally binding, the levels allow countries to ban importation of products with excessive levels of melamine. The German word melamin was coined by combining the words melam a derivative of ammonium thiocyanate and amine. In one large scale application, melamine is combined with formaldehyde and other agents to produce melamine resins.
Melamine is one of the major components in Pigment Yellow , a colorant in inks and plastics. Melamine also enters the fabrication of melamine poly-sulfonate used as superplasticizer for making high-resistance concrete.
Sulfonated melamine formaldehyde SMF is a polymer used as cement admixture to reduce the water content in concrete while increasing the fluidity and the workability of the mix during its handling and pouring. It results in concrete with a lower porosity and a higher mechanical strength, exhibiting an improved resistance to aggressive environments and a longer lifetime.
The mineralization degradation to ammonia for melamine is slow, making this product both economically and scientifically impractical for use as a fertilizer. Melamine and its salts are used as fire-retardant additives in paints, plastics, and paper. Melamine derivatives of arsenical drugs are potentially important in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis. Melamine use as non-protein nitrogen NPN for cattle was described in a patent. Standard tests, such as the Kjeldahl and Dumas tests, estimate protein levels by measuring the nitrogen content, so they can be misled by adding nitrogen-rich compounds such as melamine.
There are instruments available today which can differentiate melamine nitrogen from protein nitrogen. Food and Drug Administration FDA scientists explained that when melamine and cyanuric acid are absorbed into the bloodstream, they concentrate and interact in the urine-filled renal tubules , then crystallize and form large numbers of round, yellow crystals, which in turn block and damage the renal cells that line the tubes, causing the kidneys to malfunction.
The European Union set a standard for acceptable human consumption tolerable daily intake or TDI of melamine at 0. The World Health Organization 's food safety director estimated that the amount of melamine a person could stand per day without incurring a bigger health risk, the TDI, was 0.
Toxicity of melamine can be mediated by intestinal microbes. In culture, Klebsiella terrigena , which rarely colonizes mammalian intestines,  was shown to convert melamine to cyanuric acid directly.
Rats colonized by K. A study by Soviet researchers in the s suggested that melamine cyanurate , commonly used as a fire retardant,  could be more toxic than either melamine or cyanuric acid alone. A toxicology study in animals conducted after recalls of contaminated pet food concluded that the combination of melamine and cyanuric acid in diet does lead to acute kidney injury in cats.
In particular, Klebsiella terrigena was determined to be a factor in melamine toxicity. In culture, K. Cyanuric acid was detected in the kidneys of rats administered melamine alone, and the concentration after Klebsiella colonization was increased. Ingestion of melamine may lead to reproductive damage , or bladder or kidney stones , which can lead to bladder cancer. A survey commissioned by the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians suggested that crystals formed in the kidneys when melamine combined with cyanuric acid, "don't dissolve easily.
They go away slowly, if at all, so there is the potential for chronic toxicity. Melamine is a metabolite of cyromazine , a pesticide. Fast diagnosis and treatment of acute obstructive urolithiasis may prevent the development of acute kidney failure. Urine alkalinization and stone liberalization have been reported to be the most effective treatments in humans.
Melamine was first synthesized by the German chemist Justus von Liebig in In early production, first calcium cyanamide was converted into dicyandiamide , which was heated above its melting temperature to produce melamine. Today most industrial manufacturers use urea in the following reaction to produce melamine:. In the first step, urea decomposes into cyanic acid and ammonia:.
Cyanic acid polymerizes to cyanuric acid, which condenses with the liberated ammonia forming melamine. The released water reacts with cyanic acid, which helps to drive the reaction:.
The above reaction can be carried out by either of two methods: catalyzed gas-phase production or high pressure liquid-phase production. In one method, molten urea is introduced onto a fluidized bed with catalyst for reaction.
Hot ammonia gas is also present to fluidize the bed and inhibit deammonization. The effluent then is cooled. Ammonia and carbon dioxide in the off-gas are separated from the melamine-containing slurry. The slurry is further concentrated and crystallized to yield melamine. The off-gas contains large amounts of ammonia. Therefore, melamine production is often integrated into urea production, which uses ammonia as feedstock.
Crystallization and washing of melamine generates a considerable amount of waste water, which may be concentrated into a solid 1. Melamine reacts with acid and related compounds to form melamine cyanurate and related crystal structures, which have been implicated as contaminants or biomarkers in Chinese protein adulterations. Melamine is part of the core structure for a number of drugs including almitrine , altretamine , cyromazine , ethylhexyl triazone , iscotrizinol , meladrazine , melarsomine , melarsoprol , tretamine , trinitrotriazine , and others.
Between the late s and early s, both consumption and production of melamine grew considerably in mainland China. By early , melamine production in mainland China is reported to be in "serious surplus". However, reduced profit has already caused other joint melamine ventures to be postponed there. Surplus melamine has been an adulterant for feedstock and milk in mainland China for several years now because it can make diluted or poor quality material appear to be higher in protein content by elevating the total nitrogen content detected by some simple protein tests.
Actions taken in by the Government of China have reduced the practice of adulteration, with the goal of eliminating it. Court trials began in December for six people linked to the scandal and ended in January with two of the convicts being sentenced to death and executed. Melamine has been involved in several food recalls after the discovery of severe kidney damage to children and pets poisoned by melamine-adulterated food.
In , a pet food recall was initiated by Menu Foods and other pet food manufacturers who had found their products had been contaminated and caused serious illnesses or deaths in some of the animals that had eaten them. In April , The New York Times reported that the addition of "melamine scrap" into fish and livestock feed to give the false appearance of a higher level of protein was an "open secret" in many parts of mainland China, reporting that this melamine scrap was being produced by at least one plant processing coal into melamine.
Li Xiuping, a manager at Henan Xinxiang Huaxing Chemical in Henan Province , stated, "Our chemical products are mostly used for additives, not for animal feed. Melamine is mainly used in the chemical industry, but it can also be used in making cakes.
Another recall incident in involved melamine which had been purposely added as a binder to fish and livestock feed manufactured in the United States. This was traced to suppliers in Ohio and Colorado. By December , nearly , people had become ill, with more than 50, infant hospitalizations and six infant deaths. On January 22, , three of those involved in the scandal including one conditional sentence were sentenced to death in a Chinese court.
York Chow, the health secretary of Hong Kong, said he thought animal feeds might be the source of the contamination and announced that the Hong Kong Centre for Food Safety would henceforward be testing all mainland Chinese pork, farmed fish, animal feed, chicken meat, eggs, and offal products for melamine. As of July , Chinese authorities were still reporting some seizures of melamine-contaminated dairy product in some provinces, though it was unclear whether these new contaminations constituted wholly new adulterations or were the result of illegal reuse of material from the adulterations.
On characterization and treatment of urinary stones in affected infants, The New England Journal of Medicine printed an editorial in March , along with reports on cases from Beijing, Hong Kong and Taipei. Urinary calculi specimens were collected from 15 cases treated in Beijing and were analyzed as unknown objects for their components at Beijing Institute of Microchemistry using infrared spectroscopy , nuclear magnetic resonance , and high performance liquid chromatography.
The result of the analysis showed that the calculus was composed of melamine and uric acid , and the molecular ratio of uric acid to melamine was around In a study published in , researchers from Beijing University studying ultrasound images of infants who fell ill in the contamination found that while most children in a rural Chinese area recovered, 12 per cent still showed kidney abnormalities six months later. Until the pet food recalls , melamine had not routinely been monitored in food, except in the context of plastic safety or insecticide residue.
Following the deaths of children in China from powdered milk in , the Joint Research Centre JRC of the European in Belgium set up a website about methods to detect melamine. The study concluded that the majority of labs can effectively detect melamine in food. In October , the U. Food and Drug Administration FDA issued new methods for the analysis of melamine and cyanuric acid in infant formulations in the Laboratory Information Bulletin No However, electrospray ionization methods coupled with mass spectrometry allow a rapid and direct analysis of samples with complex matrices: the native liquid samples are directly ionized under ambient conditions in their original solution.
In December , two new fast and inexpensive methods for detecting melamine in liquids have been published. Ultrasounds are used to nebulize the melamine-containing liquids into a fine spray. An analysis requires 30 seconds per sample.
The limit of detection of melamine is a few nanograms of melamine per gram of milk. Huang et al. The major obstacles being solved, the ESI-MS technique allows now high-throughput analysis of melamine traces in complex mixtures. The Melaminometer    was a hypothetical design for a synthetic biology circuit, to be used for detecting melamine and related chemical analogues such as cyanuric acid. The conceptual project is hosted at OpenWetWare as open source biology in collaboration with DIYbio and has been discussed in various newspapers in the context of homebrew biotechnology.
As of October , the design has not been verified. Because melamine resin is often used in food packaging and tableware, melamine at ppm level 1 part per million in food and beverage has been reported due to migration from melamine-containing resins. The presence of melamine in urine specimens from children who consumed adulterated milk products has been determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
It is reported that melamine molecules adsorbed on gold  or silver  surface tend to arrange into honeycomb or closed-packed structures. Such a self-assembly occurs due to the inter-molecular hydrogen bond interaction. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Chemical compound. Not to be confused with Melanin. This article is about the chemical compound. For the chemically-related plastic, see Melamine resin. CAS Number.
Modern biotechnology refers to various scientific techniques used to produce specific desired traits in plants, animals or microorganisms through the use of genetic knowledge. Since its introduction to agriculture and food production in the early, biotechnology has been utilized to develop new tools for improving productivity. Biotechnology is a broad term that applies to the use of living organisms and covers techniques that range from simple to sophisticated. In contrast, modern agricultural biotechnology techniques, such as genetic engineering, allow for more precise development of crop and livestock varieties.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
This white solid is a trimer of cyanamide , with a 1,3,5-triazine skeleton. Melamine can be combined with formaldehyde and other agents to produce melamine resins. Such resins are characteristically durable thermosetting plastic used in high pressure decorative laminates such as Formica , melamine dinnerware, laminate flooring, and dry erase boards. Melamine foam is used as insulation, soundproofing material and in polymeric cleaning products, such as Magic Eraser. Melamine is sometimes illegally added to food products in order to increase the apparent protein content. It is also an irritant when inhaled or in contact with the skin or eyes. While not legally binding, the levels allow countries to ban importation of products with excessive levels of melamine.
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At present Austria Juice employs approximately 1, highly qualified staff, who have committed themselves to producing holistic beverage and flavour solutions for various applications in the food and beverage processing industry. The comprehensive product portfolio consists of innovative beverage compounds, flavours and fruit juice concentrates, as well as all-in-one fruit wine and cider applications. High-level competence in the creation of customised business-to-business solutions and in-depth market knowledge make Austria Juice a strong partner in the international food and beverage industry. Thanks to our decades of experience in fruit processing and our extensive know-how in the field of product development, we can help you realise tailor-made product solutions, individually designed to your requirements.
Dietary fibre is that part of plant material in the diet which is resistant to enzymatic digestion which includes cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectic substances, gums, mucilages and a non-carbohydrate component lignin. The diets rich in fibre such as cereals, nuts, fruits and vegetables have a positive effect on health since their consumption has been related to decreased incidence of several diseases. Dietary fibre can be used in various functional foods like bakery, drinks, beverages and meat products. Influence of different processing treatments like extrusion-cooking, canning, grinding, boiling, frying alters the physico- chemical properties of dietary fibre and improves their functionality. Dietary fibre can be determined by different methods, mainly by: enzymic gravimetric and enzymic—chemical methods. This paper presents the recent developments in the extraction, applications and functions of dietary fibre in different food products. Dietary fibre has long history, its term originating with Hipsley who coined dietary fibre as a nondigestable constituents making up the plant cell wall and further its definition has seen several revisions. Botanists define fibre as a part of the plant organs, chemical analysts as a group of chemical compounds, consumer as a substance with beneficial effects on human health and for the dietetic and chemical industries dietary fibre is a subject of marketing. Later dietary fibre was defined as a ubiquitous component of plant foods and includes materials of diverse chemical and morphological structure, resistant to the action of human alimentary enzymes Kay The most consistent definition that is now accepted is from Trowell et al.
Supplying South Africa with the widest variety of quality dried fruit and nuts from around the world. In June this man traveled the world in pursuit of the finest quality product available. He visited 12 countries and over nut farms and fruit drying facilities. Providing South Africans with the healthiest products sourced from around the world is still our dream and what gets us out of bed in the morning.
An adhesive is a material used for holding two surfaces together. A useful way to classify adhesives is by the way they react chemically after they have been applied to the surfaces to be joined. There is a huge range of adhesives, and one appropriate for the materials being joined must be chosen. Gums and resins are polymeric compounds and manufactured by synthetic routes. Gums and resins largely used in water or other solvent soluble form for providing special properties to some formulations. Gums and resins have wide industrial applications. They are used in manufacture of lacquers, printing inks, varnishes, paints, textiles, cosmetics, food and other industries. Increase in disposable income levels, rising GDP and booming retail markets are propelling growth in packaging and flexible packaging industry. Growth of disposable products is expected to increase, which leads to increase in consumption of adhesives in packaging industry. Rapid urbanization coupled with growing infrastructure and real estate construction projects is projected to further fuel demand for adhesives in India.
Dietary fibre in foods: a review
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What are superfoods and why should you eat them?
Food processing is a way or technique that is used to convert raw foods into well-cooked and well preserved eatables for both humans and animals. Food processing uses raw, clean, harvested crops or slaughtered and butchered animals and turns these into food products for daily consumption. A number of products are nutritious, easy to cook and have a long shelf life. They are packed in an attractive manner and are highly marketable. The food processing industry plays a vital role in the economy of any country because it links agriculture to industry. The food processing industry is responsible for diversification of agriculture, improvement of value-added opportunities, and creation of excess that can be exported. The food processing industry of India is one of the largest in the world in terms of manufacture, use, export, and development. The sector has immense potential to contribute to growth and employment opportunities of the country. Rapid globalization and development of economy has taken a toll on the lives of consumers, particularly those residing in urban areas.
The term "superfood" is a fairly new term referring to foods that offer maximum nutritional benefits for minimal calories. They are packed with vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. No standard criteria or legal definitions classify any food as a superfood at this time. However, most superfoods are plant-based.
Tomato is one of the most popular fruit in the world. The products of tomato like paste, juice, ketchup, etc. Tomatoes and tomato-based foods are considered healthy for the reason that they are low in calories, but possess a remarkable combination of antioxidant micronutrients.
In our most recently added segment, Fruit, we have specialised in fruit preparations and fruit juice concentrates. Here, we have been relying on the very latest technologies in production processes since Healthy nutrition remains a key trend, something which is evident in the dynamic growth seen in this segment.
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