The study of the history of clothing and textiles traces the development, use, and availability of clothing and textiles over human history. Clothing and textiles reflect the materials and technologies available in different civilizations at different times. The variety and distribution of clothing and textiles within a society reveal social customs and culture. The wearing of clothing is exclusively a human characteristic and is a feature of most human societies, though it is not known exactly when various peoples began wearing clothes.
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History of clothing and textilesVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Felt Slipper Tutorial - Full Length, Thorough DIY Resist & Wet Felting How To w/ Feral Forest
This application also claims priority from German application DE 10 The entire contents of that international application and that German application and that European application are incorporated herein by reference. The object of the present invention is a felt material with a barrier function comprising at least one felt layer and an absorber containing material, as well as a method for the production of the felt material, a component made of this felt material and its use.
Felt is a fabric for textiles which has a sheet-like structure and which consists of mechanically bonded fibers. Unlike other fabrics, felt is not woven. Instead, it is manufactured under the influence exerted by pressure with the procedure for pressed felts, or by using an acid to roughen the fibers and to create a nonwoven fabric which is bonded by moisture and heat.
Traditionally, pressed felts are made from wool or from other loose animal hair because due to the peeling structure of the hair, the fibers become mutually entangled.
The hardness of the felt can range between that of soft cotton or of hard wood, and felts which have even a higher hardness can be also produced. The classical wool felts are also referred to as pressed or milling felts. More recently, felts have been often produced as needle felts. In this case, the fibers are placed in layers on top of each other and processed with numerous needles which are provided with barbs so that they are pierced through several times.
The repeated insertion of the fibers means that they are intertwined or pressed in the felt. The needle felts can be therefore manufactured not only from wool, but virtually from all known fibers. Due to its warming properties, felt is used also for the manufacture of clothing, lining materials or shoes, as well as for insulating materials. They are particularly popular due to their warming effect, for example when used in shoes made of felts, or in felt hats or cardigans. In technology, felts are used for example for sealing materials made of felts, felt rings or felt strips, or as surface materials for sealing or soundproofing.
In addition, technical molded parts or filters made from felt materials are also known. In addition to its heat insulating characteristics, felt is also permeable to air and to a certain extent it is waterproof. However, with a larger amount of water, for example when it rains, water will penetrate through the felt.
The felt material feels uncomfortable and heavy when it is wet because it traps water like a sponge. In the area of sanitary pads or materials that are used for pillows, it is known that coating materials with super absorbent polymers can be used to absorb water and moisture.
For example DE 33 T2 describes an absorbent product consisting of several layers which is equipped with an absorbent core for absorption of liquids. In order to protect clothing, one of the layers is in this case made from a plastic material, which means that the air permeability of the product is severely limited. The products used in this manner are in this case designed in such a way so as to achieve the maximum absorption of liquids.
So far it has not been possible to control the distinct increase of weight and the increased volume of the product caused by this for application to hygienic articles. The large amounts of fluids thus result in correspondingly long drying time periods. In addition, the products are suitable only for single use and they must be disposed of once they have come into contact with fluids. Also, the products are not washable and the superabsorber would be separated from the carrier material as a result of mechanical influences such as during washing in a washing machine, or when it is compressed for a long time.
With respect to hygienic articles, it is further also known from DE 10 that fiber sheets can be produced from cellulose fibers and that the absorption of these layers which contain cellulose fibers can be improved with the addition of a superabsorber. Also the products described in this document can be used only for disposable articles such as hygienic articles, medical products, diapers, panty liners, articles inserted in food packaging products or disposable filters.
The described materials cannot be used in clothing articles or in areas in which repeated use would be required due to the small mechanical strength and also due to the high swelling displayed in case of contact with a fluid. As a result of the large amounts of fluid which are absorbed per surface area, these materials dry out only very slowly because a large volume of fluids must be evaporated.
Moreover, the article is also quite heavy due to the large fluid absorption. The object of the present invention is therefore to provide an absorbent material which is provided with a high mechanical strength and which in the dry state is provided with a good air permeability. The absorbent material must at the same time display a barrier effect against the penetration of fluids or moisture in the wet or dry status so that at least a significant reduction of the flow through the material is achieved.
The objects that are manufactured with these materials must be washable or capable of being cleaned chemically. Another object of the invention is to provide a simple and inexpensive method for manufacturing such a felt material which can be preferably realized without using special devices. The felt material according to the invention is permeable to air in the dry state, so that the ventilation of the article of clothing which is provided with the felt material or of a shoe or other objects can occur.
As soon as the felt material according to the invention comes into contact with air or with water vapor moisture , the enclosed absorber swells up and thus limits the flow through the felt material. In this state which is referred to as a wet state, the felt material is preferably neither permeable to air not to water vapor or other liquids, i.
Under water is understood water in the fluid, aggregate state, while the term water vapor moisture refers to water forming gas.
Just as contact with water swells up the absorber, so does contact with other liquids, while there are also liquids that cause swelling, as well as inert liquids. The contact with inert liquids does not lead to swelling. At the same time, various absorber polymers, which can be present for example also as an admixture in a felt surface, react differently to water or to certain fluids.
Closing of the felt material and thus an activation of the barrier function preferably occurs with contact with water. Contact with water vapor leads either to a slight swelling or with a high absorption density to the closing of the material. Under filter material according to the invention is understood a flat textile form or structure in which the fibers are mutually entangled with needle felts, or into which the felt is pressed so that optionally and additionally, heating, compression or a chemical reaction is used for solidification.
The cohesion in the felt material thus occurs only due to mechanically strengthened and mutually entangled fibers and not by weaving, knitting, sewing or other manufacturing methods. The filter material according to the invention has the advantage that it is washable, for example when it is employed in articles of clothing, it can be even washed in a normal washing machine, which means that it can be used for the widest range of applications. Thanks to the fact that it is washable, material provided with an absorber polymer can be reused for the first time in various application products.
This makes it possible to significantly reduce the waste resulting from the use of disposable products. Since the felt material according to the invention is provided in various embodiments which have the same characteristics as filter material that is equipped with absorber polymers, the felt material according to the invention can be employed everywhere where normal felt material is also employed.
In the dry state, the felt material according to the invention cannot be distinguished from normal needled felt material, either visually or by touch. Therefore, as far as the appearance and the tactile feeling are concerned, a material that is equivalent to conventional material is obtained. However, in comparison to conventional absorber-containing flat materials, the felt material according to the invention display a high mechanical durability and a greater stability.
Surprisingly, the felt material according to the invention can be manufactured with the same machines as needle felts, which is to say that it is not necessary to perform a special adjustment or modification. Therefore, higher processing cost than those that would be required for the production of a normal felt are not generated. Compared with conventional materials which are provided with superabsorber polymers, such as for example incontinence products known from prior art technology, the felt material of the invention has the advantage that the superabsorber polymers are enclosed in an undetachable manner, which is to say that when the felt material according to the invention is used, parts of the absorber polymer cannot become inadvertently separated from the felt material and thus exert an influence on the application properties.
Another advantage of the felt material according to the invention and of structural components produced from this felt material is that the material is extremely easy to prepare and it can be thus easily adapted to a wide range of applications. In addition, the felt material according to the invention is also provided with a high degree of plasticity so that certain forms and part shapes can be produced in a targeted manner.
In particular due to the washability and the high stability, the felt material according to the invention is characterized by a significantly higher lifespan than functional materials provided with superabsorber polymers. The material according to the invention differs significantly from known climatic membranes in its air permeability as these membranes are permeable only in one direction and only to water vapor.
While it is possible to switch between the permeable and non-permeable state with the felt material according to the invention and air can be transported both from inside to the outside and from outside to the interior, climatic membranes enable transport of water vapor only in one direction of the membrane.
Transport of air is not possible with climatic membranes. This represents a significant advantage of the material according to the invention over climatic membranes. The closing of the filter material occurs due to the limitation of the absorber in its three-dimensional expansion. The absorber is limited in one plane in its expansion by the layers of the felt material. In the two other planes, the absorber is limited in its expansion by the fibers which connect both felt layers and form in this manner small, chamber-like spaces.
These fibers are referred to as connecting fibers according to the invention. With the inclusion of the absorber in the felt material, an absorber-containing material is obtained which has a high mechanical strength.
This represents a special advantage over known absorber-containing articles in that it allows the felt material according to the invention to be used also in areas in which a high mechanical stress occurs or when multiple use is desired. The first and the second felt layers are preferably connected together so that the absorber is distributed as evenly as possible and undetachably enclosed by the connecting fibers.
The three-dimensional expansion is therefore limited mainly by the connecting fibers between the felt layers, and optionally also by the carrier material. In another embodiment, the limit can be created in addition to the fibers also by other structures in the edge regions, such as rims made of plastic. Moreover, the absorber is limited in its expansion in one embodiment in addition to the felt fibers also by injections of plastic material or plastic supports into it, such as for example frame elements.
The felt material according to the invention preferably comprises at least three layers, wherein in the first layer is the felt material on which a second layer is arranged consisting of an absorber-containing material, while an additional, second felt layer is arranged on the absorber-containing material. Both felt layers either consist of the same fiber material or they can be made from different fiber materials.
The felt layer of the felt material according to the invention preferably consists of synthetic, semi-synthetic, animal, mineral, metallic, or vegetable fibers, rubber fibers, hybrid fibers or a mixture thereof. Suitable fibers include for example wool fibers, carbon fibers, microfibers, casein, creatine and synthetic fibers made of polypropylene PP , polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE or polyester PES.
Depending on the embodiment, all the fibers have the same diameter, or at least partially different diameters. Fibers referred to as hybrid fibers are fibers consisting of more than one starting material, for example fibers that are made of different plastic materials. In one embodiment, the felt layer of the felt material according to the invention is manufactured entirely or partially from renewable raw materials.
Fibers of such renewable raw materials are for example polysaccharide fibers, and in particular fibers made from starches, cellulose, or guar gum or peptin fibers, or fibers made from derivatives thereof. When fibers or fiber components made of renewable raw materials are employed, this makes it possible to produce the felt material according to the invention as biologically renewable or compostable material.
In yet another embodiment, the felt layer is produced entirely or partially from fibers that are made from biogenic raw materials. Biogenic raw materials are materials of vegetable and animal origin. Suitable biogenic raw materials are for example feather creatine and mil casein.
The felt layer of the felt material according to the invention can consist of single fibers or of a mixture of fibers. When a mixture of fibers is used, it is possible to process fibers which have different characteristics to obtain a felt. The fibers of the fiber mixture can in this case differ for example in the thickness of the fiber, or in the fiber density, or in the surface structure of the fiber.
It is thus possible to use for example fibers having a surface structure which supports felting matting , which is the case for example with animal fibers, or wool fibers with scales. The fibers can be equipped for this purpose with inward and outward bulges or other surface structures. When fiber mixtures are used, the different fibers are distributed in the fiber fabric evenly or unevenly before they are processed to obtain a felt.
In one variant, the fiber sheets are pre-needled before the actual connection is induced. If several felt layers are employed, they can be also needled with different strengths.
Accordingly, the surface weight of the felt layers can be also identical or different. It is also possible to use needling with a different strength in a single area within one felt layer. Such a different strength within one surface can be achieved for example with a different density of the arrangement of the needles in a needle board, or when different needle boards are used.
In one embodiment, the fiber mixture is designed in such a way that it has a fiber content which is particularly well handled by the felt needles, and a second fiber content which supports a further processing of the felt.
Refine your search Locate the companies on a map. Nonwoven materials for the garment sewing industry are produced from natural and synthetic fibers such as: cotton, wool , polyester fiber and their composites. Contact this company. Manufacture of adhesive synthetic and woollen felts, packaged in sachets, on sheets and on industrial rolls. Various sizes available, and sizes also produced on request. Supplier of: Felts wool felts felts for technical applications Emery-coated fabrics.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
A textile  is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers yarn or thread. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool , flax , cotton , hemp , or other materials to produce long strands. The related words " fabric "  and " cloth "  and "material" are often used in textile assembly trades such as tailoring and dressmaking as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. A textile is any material made of interlacing fibres, including carpeting and geotextiles. A fabric is a material made through weaving, knitting, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods garments, etc.
Table of Contents
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Production and Ginning of Cotton W. Stanley Anthony. Cotton Yarn Manufacturing Phillip J. Wool Industry D. Silk Industry J. Viscose Rayon M. El Attal.
Felt products on display are sample peices of the products in store. The products come in different shapes, sizes and colours and can be adjusted according to customer preferences. Felt products with a neat finish for a more vibrant look.
Manufacturer producer - wool felt. Refine your search Locate the companies on a map. Nonwoven materials for the garment sewing industry are produced from natural and synthetic fibers such as: cotton, wool , polyester fiber and their composites. Contact this company. Manufacture of adhesive synthetic and woollen felts, packaged in sachets, on sheets and on industrial rolls. Various sizes available, and sizes also produced on request. Supplier of: Felts wool felts felts for technical applications Emery-coated fabrics. Supplier of: Felts wool felts felts for technical applications felts for furnishing furnishing supplies. The products offered by us are wool felts , automobile felt components, filtration media, polishing tools and buffs, endless felt , felt berets, non-woven needle punch felt and fabrics, felt for duster and stationery, self-adhesive Supplier of: Felts wool felt felts wool fibres woollen fabrics.
Ситуация, бесспорно, не оптимальная. нет, я полагаю, что октопауки все еще пытаются пристроить нас каким-то образом в свою замкнутую систему. Ричард и Николь торопливо совершили последний обход, остановились возле фонтана, попили воды. - А как ты себя чувствуешь. - спросил Ричард. - Великолепно.
Помнишь все эти бесконечные вопросы, которые любил задавать Ричард. кто построил Узел и Раму и с какой целью. Святой Микель знает все ответы, причем объясняет все весьма красноречиво.
- Боже. - произнесла Николь с легким оттенком сарказма в голосе. - Звучит просто фантастично. слишком прекрасно, чтобы быть истиной. Ну и когда же я буду иметь честь встретиться со Святым Микелем.
Она только посоветовала не сдаваться, но и предостерегла дочь: ничто в поведении Ричарда не говорило, что он может изменить свое решение. По предложению Николь Элли сходила к Арчи и спросила его мнение. Ее заинтересовало, сумеет ли Арчи или кто-то из октопауков доставить Роберта назад в подземелье, где его обнаружат другие люди, если он не захочет идти с.
Арчи без особой охоты согласился.
_Что_. - спросила Николь уже с испугом. - Ты серьезно. - Она нетерпеливо ждала, чтобы глаза вновь привыкли к темноте.
Приемные буферы наших тел вмещают запас пищи на тридцать дней, максимум на сорок пять при пониженных затратах энергии. Ты можешь представить, сколько пищи умещается в дюжине этих На моих глазах пятеро октопауков приблизились к одному из своих чудовищных братцев и что-то проговорили цветовыми полосами. Через мгновение создание наклонилось вперед, пригнуло голову к земле и извергло какую-то кашицу из огромного рта под молочной линзой.
Более того, в верхних ярусах - если не считать "охраны", - октопауков не. Пятнадцать тысяч октопауков-зрителей, по оценке Ричарда, располагались внизу.