Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Also included is the important technology associated with the coating of fibers, a technology that allows chemical and physical tailoring of the fiber surface.
Dear readers! Our articles talk about typical ways to solve the issue of renting industrial premises, but each case is unique.
If you want to know how to solve your particular problem, please contact the online consultant form on the right or call the numbers on the website. It is fast and free!
- The making of carbon fiber
- Fibre Manufacturing and PCVD Chemical Deposition Process
- Carbon Fiber
- Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes
- Types of Machines Used in Textile Industries
- polyester staple fiber machinery manufacturers & suppliers
- Looking for answers to your most pressing FIBER DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING questions?
The making of carbon fiberVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: OFS Fiber Manufacturing
A carbon fiber is a long, thin strand of material about 0. The carbon atoms are bonded together in microscopic crystals that are more or less aligned parallel to the long axis of the fiber. The crystal alignment makes the fiber incredibly strong for its size. Several thousand carbon fibers are twisted together to form a yarn, which may be used by itself or woven into a fabric.
The yarn or fabric is combined with epoxy and wound or molded into shape to form various composite materials. Carbon fiber-reinforced composite materials are used to make aircraft and spacecraft parts, racing car bodies, golf club shafts, bicycle frames, fishing rods, automobile springs, sailboat masts, and many other components where light weight and high strength are needed.
Carbon fibers were developed in the s as a reinforcement for high-temperature molded plastic components on missiles.
The first fibers were manufactured by heating strands of rayon until they carbonized. In the early s, a process was developed using polyacrylonitrile as a raw material.
The polyacrylonitrile conversion process quickly became the primary method for producing carbon fibers. During the s, experimental work to find alternative raw materials led to the introduction of carbon fibers made from a petroleum pitch derived from oil processing.
Unfortunately, they had only limited compression strength and were not widely accepted. Today, carbon fibers are an important part of many products, and new applications are being developed every year. Carbon fibers are classified by the tensile modulus of the fiber. Tensile modulus is a measure of how much pulling force a certain diameter fiber can exert without breaking.
The English unit of measurement is pounds of force per square inch of cross-sectional area, or psi. Carbon fibers classified as "low modulus" have a tensile modulus below Other classifications, in ascending order of tensile modulus, include "standard modulus," "intermediate modulus," "high modulus," and "ultrahigh modulus. As a comparison, steel has a tensile modulus of about 29 million psi million kPa.
Thus, the strongest carbon fiber is about five times stronger than steel. The term graphite fiber refers to certain ultrahigh modulus fibers made from petroleum pitch. These fibers have an internal structure that closely approximates the three-dimensional crystal alignment that is characteristic of a pure form of carbon known as graphite. Plastics are drown into long strands or fibers and then heated to a very high temperature without allowing it to come in contact with oxygen.
Without oxygen, the fiber cannot burn. Instead, the high temperature causes the atoms in the fiber to vibrate violently until most of the non-carbon atoms are expelled. The raw material used to make carbon fiber is called the precursor. All of these materials are organic polymers, characterized by long strings of molecules bound together by carbon atoms. The exact composition of each precursor varies from one company to another and is generally considered a trade secret.
During the manufacturing process, a variety of gases and liquids are used. Some of these materials are designed to react with the fiber to achieve a specific effect.
Other materials are designed not to react or to prevent certain reactions with the fiber. As with the precursors, the exact compositions of many of these process materials are considered trade secrets. The process for making carbon fibers is part chemical and part mechanical. The precursor is drawn into long strands or fibers and then heated to a very high temperature with-out allowing it to come in contact with oxygen.
This process is called carbonization and leaves a fiber composed of long, tightly The fibers are coated to protect them from damage during winding or weaving. The coated fibers are wound onto cylinders called bobbins. Here is a typical sequence of operations used to form carbon fibers from polyacrylonitrile. The very small size of carbon fibers does not allow visual inspection as a quality control method. Instead, producing consistent precursor fibers and closely controlling the manufacturing process used to turn them into carbon fibers controls the quality.
Process variables such as time, temperature, gas flow, and chemical composition are closely monitored during each stage of the production. The carbon fibers, as well as the finished composite materials, are also subject to rigorous testing. Common fiber tests include density, strength, amount of sizing, and others. In , the Suppliers of Advanced Composite Materials Association established standards for carbon fiber testing methods, which are now used throughout the industry. There are three areas of concern in the production and handling of carbon fibers: dust inhalation, skin irritation, and the effect of fibers on electrical equipment.
During processing, pieces of carbon fibers can break off and circulate in the air in the form of a fine dust. Industrial health studies have shown that, unlike some asbestos fibers, carbon fibers are too large to be a health hazard when inhaled. They can be an irritant, however, and people working in the area should wear protective masks.
The carbon fibers can also cause skin irritation, especially on the back of hands and wrists. Protective clothing or the use of barrier skin creams is recommended for people in an area where carbon fiber dust is present. The sizing materials used to coat the fibers often contain chemicals that can cause severe skin reactions, which also requires protection. In addition to being strong, carbon fibers are also good conductors of electricity. As a result, carbon fiber dust can cause arcing and shorts in electrical equipment.
If electrical equipment cannot be relocated from the area where carbon dust is present, the equipment is sealed in a cabinet or other enclosure. The latest development in carbon fiber technology is tiny carbon tubes called nanotubes. These hollow tubes, some as small as 0. Brady, George S. Clauser, and John A.
Materials Handbook. McGraw-Hill, Kroschwitz, Jacqueline I. Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Ebbesen, T. American Carbon Society website. Carbon Composites website. Toggle navigation. The fibers are coated to protect them from damage during winding or weaving. Periodicals Ebbesen, T. Other American Carbon Society website. Other articles you might like:. Follow City-Data. Tweets by LechMazur. User Contributions: 1. Bill Juhasz. The author states, "Tensile modulus is a measure of how much pulling force a certain diameter fiber can exert without breaking.
The term "modulus" as used by engineers and in this article is actually short for "modulus of elastisity". In simple terms modulus actually means, a measure of how stiff a certain diameter fiber is, or the resistance to stretching, the higher the number the stiffer the fiber. Only boron fiber can approach the stiffness of the highest modulus carbon fibers. Interestingly these extremely high modulus carbon fibers often called graphite fibers have thermal conductivity several times higher than copper and are sometimes used for their thermal properties rather than their extreme stiffness and very high strenth.
Md Akbar Ali. Mititelu Alexandru Cosmin. And i am writing a project about recycling fiber carbon and the equipment it implies,and i was wondering if you could give me some more details about the equipment,something more like an inside look of how it works the process that the fiber carbon suffers passing threw the equipment and i would be verry greatefull for some pictures of the inside of the machinery because my project implies a 3d design of how would you make a recycling machine,and i am using solid edge as a programe and i have some ideas on how to make something but it isn't really something concrete.
Thank you for reading and hope to heare soon, Mititelu Alexandru Cosmin. Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic: Name:. E-mail: Show my email publicly.
Human Verification:. Public Comment: characters. Send comment. Braille Publication Carbon Monoxide Detector.
Read more. All textiles are made up of fibres that are arranged in different ways to create the desired strength, durability, appearance and texture. The fibres can be of countless origins, but can be grouped into four main categories. Natural fibres, with the exception of silk, have a relatively short fibre length, measured in centimetres. Silk and man-made fibres have on the other hand very long fibre lengths filaments ranging from hundreds of metres to kilometres long.
Fibre Manufacturing and PCVD Chemical Deposition Process
A carbon fiber is a long, thin strand of material about 0. The carbon atoms are bonded together in microscopic crystals that are more or less aligned parallel to the long axis of the fiber. The crystal alignment makes the fiber incredibly strong for its size. Several thousand carbon fibers are twisted together to form a yarn, which may be used by itself or woven into a fabric. The yarn or fabric is combined with epoxy and wound or molded into shape to form various composite materials. Carbon fiber-reinforced composite materials are used to make aircraft and spacecraft parts, racing car bodies, golf club shafts, bicycle frames, fishing rods, automobile springs, sailboat masts, and many other components where light weight and high strength are needed. Carbon fibers were developed in the s as a reinforcement for high-temperature molded plastic components on missiles.
Polymer that is to be converted into fibre must first be converted to a liquid or semiliquid state, either by being dissolved in a solvent or by being heated until molten. This process frees the long molecules from close association with one another, allowing them to move independently. The resulting liquid is extruded through small holes in a device known as a spinnerette , emerging as fine jets of liquid that harden to form solid rods with all the superficial characteristics of a very long fibre, or filament. This extrusion of liquid fibre-forming polymer, followed by hardening to form filaments, is called spinning a term that is actually more properly used in connection with textile manufacturing. Several spinning techniques are used in the production of man-made fibre, including solution spinning wet or dry , melt spinning, gel spinning a variant on solution spinning , and emulsion spinning another variation of solution spinning. One of the oldest methods for the preparation of man-made fibres is solution spinning, which was introduced industrially at the end of the 19th century.
Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn , yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide range of products. Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre. In the year , the global yield was 25 million tons from 35 million hectares cultivated in more than 50 countries.
Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes
Federal Equipment company supplies used chemical equipment to chemical manufacturers around the world. As a leading used chemical machinery dealer, we leverage strategic relationships to source the most reliable used chemical equipment for our inventory. Browse over categories containing thousands of pieces of used chemical manufacturing equipment for sale.
Types of Machines Used in Textile Industries
Manufacturing is no longer simply about making physical products. Changes in consumer demand, the nature of products, the economics of production, and the economics of the supply chain have led to a fundamental shift in the way companies do business. Customers demand personalization and customization as the line between consumer and creator continues to blur. As technology continues to advance exponentially, barriers to entry, commercialization, and learning are eroding. New market entrants with access to new tools can operate at much smaller scale, enabling them to create offerings once the sole province of major incumbents. While large-scale production will always dominate some segments of the value chain, innovative manufacturing models—distributed small-scale local manufacturing, loosely coupled manufacturing ecosystems, and agile manufacturing—are arising to take advantage of these new opportunities.
polyester staple fiber machinery manufacturers & suppliers
During the fiberglass fabrication process, thin glass fibers are combined using various types of resins to create a product that is lightweight yet durable. Because it features these fiber and resin combinations, fiberglass is known as a composite. Read More…. With over years combined experience, All Plastics and Fiberglass has the experience to handle all your fiberglass needs. Request A Quote. Fiberglass and composite production and tooling are what we're known for. We are a service company, and also known for making molds for other fiberglass companies to use. We have 25 plus years in the composites industry. For more information, please visit our website!
Looking for answers to your most pressing FIBER DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING questions?
Massive companies covering many industrial sectors, we list the biggest chemical manufacturers in the world based on revenue…. As one of the leading manufacturers of specialty chemicals around the globe, Evonik Industries holds interests in many sectors including mining, real estate, chemicals and energy. Evonik also holds its own mining operation, a company that does business under the moniker of RAG-Evonik. Evonik Industries employs 33, people as of , a number that has definitely increased as the company has expanded operations in emerging markets.
Paul, MN, after recently retiring. Projects included the development and production of PM, PZ, EDFA Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier fiber, radiation-hardened fiber for gyroscopes, solution doping of preforms, patent development for Oxyfluoride Erbium fiber, organometallic rare earth deposition and a rare earth single mode fiber bend and position sensor. Search our comprehensive database of resources, including technical papers, best practices, tips, FAQs, and more.
A look at the process by which precursor becomes carbon fiber through a careful and mostly proprietary manipulation of temperature and tension. End of the line: Fibers in this carefully controlled maze of fibers above exit the Grafil Sacramento, Calif.
There are three basic steps required for fabric production. The first step in creating fabric is yarn production. Here, the raw materials that have been harvested and processed are transformed from raw fibers into yarn and threads.