Encyclopedia of Food Chemistry is the ideal primer for food scientists, researchers, students and young professionals who want to acquaint themselves with food chemistry. Well-organized, clearly written, and abundantly referenced, the book provides a foundation for readers to understand the principles, concepts, and techniques used in food chemistry applications. Articles are written by international experts and cover a wide range of topics, including food chemistry, food components and their interactions, properties flavor, aroma, texture the structure of food, functional foods, processing, storage, nanoparticles for food use, antioxidants, the Maillard and Strecker reactions, process derived contaminants, and the detection of economically-motivated food adulteration. The encyclopedia will provide readers with an introduction to specific topics within the wider context of food chemistry, as well as helping them identify the links between the various sub-topics. Dr Peter Varelis is an applications chemist with Shimadzu Scientific Australia where he manages a team of chemists.
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Embassy of Ukraine in the Republic of LithuaniaVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Technology Production of Alcoholic Beverages
Use this glossary of common beer and brewing vocabulary to help you on your craft beer journey. Acetaldehyde A chemical and bi product of fermentation that is perceived as green apples in both aromas and flavor.
Acid Rest A step done early in the mash around 95F by traditional brewers to lower the pH of the mash. Acrospire The shoot that grows as a barley grain is germinated. Adjunct Any unmalted grain or other fermentable ingredient used in the brewing process. Adjuncts used are typically either rice or corn, and can also include honey, syrups, and numerous other sources of fermentable carbohydrates.
They are common in mass produced light American lager-style beers. Aeration The action of introducing air or oxygen to the wort unfermented beer at various stages of the brewing process. Proper aeration before primary fermentation is vital to yeast health and vigorous fermentation. Aeration after fermentation is complete can result in beer off-flavors, including cardboard or paper aromas due to oxidation. Alcohol A synonym for ethyl alcohol or ethanol , the colorless primary alcohol constituent of beer.
Alcohol ranges for beer vary from less than 3. However, the majority of craft beer styles average around 5. Alcohol by Volume ABV A measurement of the alcohol content of a solution in terms of the percentage volume of alcohol per volume of beer. This measurement is always higher than Alcohol by Weight. To calculate the approximate volumetric alcohol content, subtract the final gravity from the original gravity and divide by 0. For example: 1. Alcohol by Weight ABW A measurement of the alcohol content of a solution in terms of the percentage weight of alcohol per volume of beer.
For example: 3. This measure is always lower than Alcohol by Volume. To calculate the approximate alcohol content by weight, subtract the final gravity from the original gravity and divide by 0.
Ale Ales are beers fermented with top fermenting yeast. Ales typically are fermented at warmer temperatures than lagers, and are often served warmer. The term ale is sometimes incorrectly associated with alcoholic strength. Ale Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a top fermenting yeast that ferments at warm temperatures F and generally produces more flavor compounds.
All Extract Beer A beer made with malt extract as opposed to one made from barley malt or from a combination of malt extract and barley malt.
All-Malt Beer A beer made entirely from mashed barley malt and without the addition of adjuncts , sugars or additional fermentables. Alpha Acid One of two primary naturally occurring soft resins in hops the other is Beta Acid.
Alpha acids are converted during wort boiling to iso-alpha acids, which cause the majority of beer bitterness. During aging, alpha acids can oxidize chemical change and lessen in bitterness. Alpha and Beta Amylase Important enzymes in brewing beer and liquor made from sugars derived from starch.
Different temperatures optimize the activity of alpha or beta amylase, resulting in different mixtures of fermentable and unfermentable sugars. Apparent Attenuation A simple measure of the extent of fermentation that wort has undergone in the process of becoming beer.
Using gravity units GU , Balling B , or Plato P units to express gravity, apparent attenuation is equal to the original gravity minus the final gravity divided by the original gravity. Aromatic hops Refers to hop additions that take place later in the boiling process.
Shorter amount of time spent in the boil kettle will provide more aromatic characteristics from the hops rather than bittering characteristics. Astringency A characteristic of beer taste mostly caused by tannins , oxidized phenols , and various aldehydes in stale beer. Astringency can cause the mouth to pucker and is often perceived as dryness. Attenuation The reduction in wort specific gravity caused by the yeast consuming wort sugars and converting them into alcohol and carbon dioxide gas through fermentation.
Autolysis A process in which excess yeast cells feed on each other producing a rubbery or vegetal aroma. Barley A cereal grain derived from the annual grass Hordeum vulgare. Barley is used as a base malt in the production of beer and certain distilled spirits, as well as a food supply for humans and animals. Beta Acids One of two primary naturally occurring soft resins in hops the other is Alpha Acid. Beta acid contributes very little to the bitterness of beer and accounts for some of its preservative quality.
Bitterness In beer, the bitterness is caused by the tannins and iso-humulones of hops. Bitterness of hops is perceived in the taste. The amount of bitterness in a beer is one of the defining characteristics of a beer style. Bittering Hops Refers to hop additions that take place early in the boiling stage of the brewing process.
The longer hops are boiled, the more bittering characteristics will come from those hops. Blending The mixing together of different batches of beer to create a final product. Body The consistency, thickness and mouth-filling property of a beer. The sensation of palate fullness in the mouth ranges from thin- to full-bodied. Boiling A critical step during the brewing process during which wort unfermented beer is boiled inside the brew kettle. During the boiling, one or more hop additions can occur to achieve bittering, hop flavor and hop aroma in the finished beer.
Boiling also sterilizes a beer as well as ends enzymatic conversion of proteins to sugars. Bottle Conditioning A process by which beer is naturally carbonated in the bottle as a result of fermentation of additional wort or sugar intentionally added during packaging.
Bottom Fermentation One of the two basic fermentation methods characterized by the tendency of yeast cells to sink to the bottom of the fermentation vessel. Lager yeast is considered to be bottom fermenting compared to ale yeast that is top fermenting. Beers brewed in this fashion are commonly called lagers or bottom-fermented beers.
Brettanomyces A type of yeast and more specifically a genus of single-celled yeasts that ferment sugar and are important to the beer and wine industries due to the sensory flavors they produce. These characteristics can be desirable or undesirable. It is common and desirable in styles such as Lambic, Oud Bruin, several similarly acidic American-derived styles, and many barrel-aged styles.
Brewers Association The Brewers Association is an organization of brewers, for brewers and by brewers. More than 4, U. Brewpub A restaurant-brewery that sells 25 percent or more of its beer on site. The beer is brewed primarily for sale in the restaurant and bar. Brew Kettle One of the vessels used in the brewing process in which the wort unfermented beer is boiled. Bung A sealing stopper, usually a cylindroconical shaped piece of wood or plastic, fitted into the mouth of a cask or older style kegs such as Hoff-Stevens or Golden Gate.
Bung Hole The round hole in the side of a cask or older style keg, through which the vessel is filled with beer and then sealed with a bung. Byproducts Desirable and undesirable compounds that are a result of fermentation, mashing, and boiling. Also known as chalk, sometimes added during brewing to increase calcium and carbonate content.
Also known as gypsum, sometimes added during brewing to increase calcium and sulfate content. Carbohydrates A group of organic compounds including sugars and starches, many of which are suitable as food for yeast and bacteria. Carbon Dioxide CO2 The gaseous by-product of yeast. Carbon dioxide is what gives beer its carbonation bubbles. Carbonation The process of introducing carbon dioxide into a liquid such as beer by:.
Caryophyllene One of the essential oils made in the flowering cone of the hops plant Humulus lupulus. Cask A barrel-shaped container for holding beer. Originally made of iron-hooped wooden staves, now most widely available in stainless steel and aluminum. Chill Haze Hazy or cloudy appearance caused when the proteins and tannins naturally found in finished beer combine upon chilling into particles large enough to reflect light or become visible.
Closed Fermentation Fermentation under closed, anaerobic conditions to minimize risk of contamination and oxidation. Cold Break The flocculation of proteins and tannins during wort cooling. Color The hue or shade of a beer, primarily derived from grains, sometimes derived from fruit or other ingredients in beer.
Beer styles made with caramelized, toasted or roasted malts or grains will exhibit increasingly darker colors. The color of a beer may often, but not always, allow the consumer to anticipate how a beer might taste.
Conditioning A step in the brewing process in which beer is matured or aged after initial fermentation to prevent the formation of unwanted flavors and compounds. Contract Brewing Company A business that hires another brewery to produce some or all of its beer. The contract brewing company handles marketing, sales and distribution of its beer, while generally leaving the brewing and packaging to its producer-brewery. Craft Brewery According to the Brewers Association, an American craft brewer is small and independent.
Decoction Mash A method of mashing that raises the temperature of the mash by removing a portion, boiling it, and returning it to the mash tun. Often used multiple times in certain mash programs. Degrees Plato An empirically derived hydrometer scale to measure density of beer wort in terms of percentage of extract by weight.
Dextrin A group of complex, unfermentable and tasteless carbohydrates produced by the partial hydrolysis of starch, that contributes to the gravity and body of beer. Some dextrins remain undissolved in the finished beer, giving it a malty sweetness.
Diacetyl A volatile compound produced by some yeasts which imparts a caramel, nutty or butterscotch flavor to beer. This compound is acceptable at low levels in several traditional beer styles, including: English and Scottish Ales, Czech Pilsners and German Oktoberfest. However, it is often an unwanted or accidental off-flavor. Diastatic Refers to the diastatic enzymes that are created as the grain sprouts. These convert starches to sugars, which yeast eat.
NCBI Bookshelf. Fermentation is biotechnology in which desirable microorganisms are used in the production of value-added products of commercial importance. Fermentation occurs in nature in any sugar-containing mash from fruit, berries, honey, or sap tapped from palms. If left exposed in a warm atmosphere, airborne yeasts act on the sugar to convert it into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The making of wines and beers uses this biotechnology under controlled conditions.
BEVON: Beverage Ontology
Role of Yeast in Production of Alcoholic Beverages. Although there is a distinction between beer, wine and liquor as well as other lesser known alcoholic beverages, they share one thing in common. They are the fermentation products of yeasts , mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae or in the case of beers, usually S. Yeasts, as you recall, are not mycelial. They are unicellular fungi that reproduce asexually by budding or fission. The reaction by which alcoholic beverages are produced is generally referred to as fermentation and may be summarized as:. This reaction is also important in baking bread, but the desired product is then the carbon dioxide rather than alcohol.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Alcoholic Beverages: Types, Difference and ABV
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Chemical Composition of Beverages and Drinks
The beverage industry consists of two major categories and eight sub-groups. The non-alcoholic category is comprised of soft drink syrup manufacture; soft drink and water bottling and canning; fruit juices bottling, canning and boxing; the coffee industry and the tea industry. Alcoholic beverage categories include distilled spirits, wine and brewing.
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Traditional low-alcoholic and non-alcoholic fermented beverages consumed in European countries: a neglected food group. Antonia Matalas. Nutrition Research Reviews, page 1 of 24 doi Low-alcoholic fermented Nutrition Research Reviews beverages LAFB and non-alcoholic fermented beverages NAFB represent a subgroup of fermented beverages that have received rather little attention by consumers and scientists alike, especially with regard to their types and traditional uses in European societies. Key words: Fermented beverages: Low-alcoholic beverages: Non-alcoholic beverages: Europe: Dairy products: Local foods Introduction in the construction of pyramids in Egypt and in royal cities and irrigation networks in ancient Central American cultures 1,2. At the same time, settlement forced diseases 7. Especially for diarrhoea 8.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. Beverage Ontology is a Web vocabulary for describing beverages, mainly alcoholic. The master version of this vocabulary is maintained in the GitHub repository so others can contribute edits and improvements. Most of the descriptions given here are from Wikipedia or from the websites of the related products. For example:. Cocktail Terms: These classes and properties are for describing beverages categorized under Mixed Drink. Container Terms: These classes and properties are used to describe beverage containers. They describe characteristics of beverages in relatively broad terms.
Absolute Ethanol - A pharmaceutical term for anhydrous ethanol. It is generally defined as having less than 1 per cent water. Acetaldehyde - Otherwise known as ethanal, acetic aldehyde or ethylaldehyde. A clear flammable liquid with a characteristic pungent odor. It is miscible with both ethanol and water. It has a narcotic effect on humans, and large doses may cause death by respiratory paralysis. It is a congener in the production of ethanol by fermentation, and is usually a major constituent of the heads fraction removed in rectification.
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Encyclopedia of Food Chemistry is the ideal primer for food scientists, researchers, students and young professionals who want to acquaint themselves with food chemistry. Well-organized, clearly written, and abundantly referenced, the book provides a foundation for readers to understand the principles, concepts, and techniques used in food chemistry applications.
Beer is one of the oldest    and most widely consumed  alcoholic drinks in the world. It is also the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. During the brewing process, fermentation of the starch sugars in the wort produces ethanol and carbonation in the resulting beer. Other flavouring agents such as gruit , herbs, or fruits may be included or used instead of hops.
Handbook of Food Chemistry pp Cite as. Major chemical constituents reviewed include pigments, colorants, carbohydrates, sweeteners, acids, volatile compounds, phenolic compounds, terpenoids and steroids, nitrogen compounds especially amines, amino acids, and proteins , minerals, vitamins, ethanol for alcoholic beverages , carbon dioxide for carbonated drinks , and preservatives. General relationships between chemical content and methods of processing are emphasized for several key beverages.