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Manufactory fabrication structures and building products from aluminum and aluminum alloys

Manufactory fabrication structures and building products from aluminum and aluminum alloys

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Content:

Most Common Uses of Aluminum

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How It's Made - Alloy Wheels

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance. In this review article, the latest developments of the four most common additive manufacturing methods for metallic materials are reviewed, including powder bed fusion, direct energy deposition, binder jetting, and sheet lamination.

In addition to the process principles, the microstructures and mechanical properties of AM-fabricated parts are comprehensively compared and evaluated. Finally, several future research directions are suggested. Vat polymerization is only capable of fabricating polymer materials. Other processes have been experimentally tested for metal fabrication, e. However, they are still in early stages of development, and there are no commercial systems yet. Arcam is the manufacturer for electron beam-based PBF.

The power of an e-beam is much higher than a laser source, and a thicker layer of metallic powder can be built in each scan. Kaufui et al. In the review, two aspects limiting the application of AM from industrial applications were discussed, these being material capability and parts accuracy.

The review paper discussed how the material microstructure architectures can be controlled by AM processes. Tapia et al. Ref 27 reviewed the process monitoring and control of metal AM systems.

Also in , Frazier discussed AM processes, material properties, and business considerations Ref The paper discussed the mechanical properties of AM parts to show the process-microstructure-properties relationship, which was further discussed by other researchers Ref 29 - The results showed that the mechanical properties may vary with AM process and AM machine.

Additional review articles include the material properties and qualifications, as well as the economic or environmental impacts of AM processes Ref 33 , The objective of this review article is twofold. The first is to provide the latest information regarding the AM metallic material microstructures and mechanical properties.

The second is to cover the process-microstructure-property correlation of binder jetting, sheet lamination, powder bed diffusion, and direct energy deposition processes, thus providing a comprehensive review of all major AM processes for metallic materials.

The structure of this review article is arranged into four major sections from section 2 to 5 , based on the four major AM processes. Each section is further divided into sub-sections of process description, typical microstructures, and a compilation of mechanical properties. Section 6 provides the conclusion and suggested future research directions. Powder bed fusion PBF uses a high-energy power source to selectively melt or sinter a metallic powder bed. Depending on the type of power source, PBF can be further divided into two major techniques: selective laser melting SLM which uses a high-intensity laser, and electron beam melting EBM , which uses an electron beam.

Both processes need a building platform to hold the powder. Schematics of powder bed fusion equipment. It utilizes a much higher-power electron beam to selectively melt the powder. Vacuum condition is required for the EBM process. As shown in Fig.

The movement of the electron beam is directly controlled by a lens system. A powder hopper pours fresh powder onto the side of the platform, and then, a layer of powder is coated by a rake on the top of previously melted layer. The grain microstructures of PBF parts are mostly affected by two factors: the temperature gradient and the solidification interface velocity. Columnar grains develop when the temperature gradient is large and the interface velocity is small.

In contrast, small temperature gradient and large interface velocity will form equiaxed grains. This grain transformation can be calculated by the dendrite growth model by Hunt Ref Based on this model, Nastac et al. Ref 41 investigated several nickel alloys and generated the solidification maps for Inconel and RS5 alloys. Sames et al. Ref 42 developed a processing window for the EBM process.

Their works show that Arcam fabricated Inconel grain growth can be specifically controlled by these two factors. Using process design to control the microstructure has been mentioned in many recent works. Dehoff et al. Ref 43 developed an EBM processing strategy that was able to produce fine grained Inconel Later, Helmer et al.

Ref 44 studied the processing window, and they also obtained fine epitaxial grains from columnar grains. Important mechanical properties such as elastic modulus, ductility, and fatigue of PBF parts were reported Ref 30 , 45 - Kruth et al.

Ref 50 presented the binding mechanisms that affect the mechanical properties of AM parts. The binding mechanisms can be divided into four categories based on the degree of melting: 1 solid-state sintering, 2 chemically induced binding, 3 partial melting, and 4 full melting Ref PBF parts show anisotropic properties including elastic modulus, yield stress, and ultimate stress Ref This anisotropy is mainly caused by insufficient heat energy which induces a lack of fusion at the interface between each layer, so that the building direction is weaker than the scanned planar direction.

Mechanical properties of metallic materials fabricated by powder bed fusion technologies. Concept Laser M2 Ref Realizer SLMi Ref The mechanical properties of other materials, including aluminum alloys and stainless steels, were also studied. However, the available data are not as abundant as for Ti6Al4V. Tensile properties of stainless steel and fatigue properties of L were presented in Ref 61 and 62 , respectively.

It is noted that PBF processed parts are prone to several issues, due to the weak bonding between layers and the complicated thermal history. High temperature gradients cause thermal residual stress that accumulates as the layers are built up, resulting in distortion and wrapping of the product.

Layer delamination and cracking are also common due to thermal stress and the weak bonding between layers. Another well-developed manufacturing technique is direct energy deposition DED. Instead of using a powder bed, DED process uses injected metal powder flow or metal wire as feedstocks, along with an energy source such as laser or electron beam, to melt and deposit the material on the top of a substrate. DED techniques can be divided into two major categories based on the feedstocks.

The first category includes methods developed from traditional welding technique using metal wire as a feedstock. Electron beam is another power source for the DED system due to its high energy density.

By using an electron beam, high accuracy and good surface finishing can be achieved with low deposition rates. It is primarily used for space-based applications. The EBF 3 process uses a metal wire filament instead of powder injection. With electron beam or laser source, the front end of the metal wire is melted and selectively sprayed on the top of a substrate to form a material layer.

A comprehensive study on the microstructure of LENS fabricated parts was first reported by Griffith et al. Ref 65 , In their study, the tensile properties of wrought materials were used as a reference for comparison. They found that the yield strength of LENS fabricated parts is very similar to wrought parts, and the tensile properties of LENS fabricated parts could be optimized by adjusting processing parameters.

Later several work done by Wu et al. Ref 67 - 69 showed that the morphologies and size of the typical columnar grains and lamellar microstructures are mainly affected by laser power and laser scan speed. Wang et al. Ref 70 identified two solidification mechanisms in the local melt pool.

They suggested a strategy that uses mass flow rate to control the grain structures. High mass flow rate leads to near-full equiaxed grains, and low mass flow rate leads to full columnar grains. Microstructures of grains in the heat-affected zone during DED process: a transverse direction and b longitudinal direction Ref Mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V and Inconel fabricated by direct energy deposition.

Other mechanical properties including hardness and surface roughness also show a difference at different printing orientations. Different from the PBF systems, some advanced DED machines use a 5- or more axis system instead of 3-axis, which enable the fabrication of larger parts with an optimal manufacturing process.

Also, different from PBF process, where vacuum or inert gas must be applied, in the DED process, for non-reactive metals, an inert gas environment is not necessary. To protect the material from oxidization, a shielding gas flow is applied to the melt pool area. Binder jetting sometimes is named as powder bed and inkjet head 3D printing.

It was first developed and patented by Saches et al. Ref The idea is to extend the normal two-dimensional printing to the third dimension. In practice, it uses one or more nozzles to inject liquid binder on the top of a powder bed, gluing the powder together. The nozzles move according to the designed path until a thin layer of powder is bonded.

Finally, a three-dimensional object is formed by stacking of layers. Post-processing of binder jetted objects is often more complicated than other AM techniques, especially for metallic materials. The heat treatment involves sintering, consolidation and sometimes infiltration, and burning of the binder. The loosely packed metallic powder is bonded together through powder sintering and densification, so that the overall density and strength of the part can be increased. In some cases, metals with a low melting point, e.

By doing this, the ductility of the binder jetting product can be increased Ref

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Aircraft alloy materials and processing technology has been advancing steadily with each new aircraft model.

For reasons of availability, low weight, and prior manufacturing experience, most early aircraft were of wood and fabric construction. At the lower speeds then obtainable, streamlining was not a primary consideration, and many wires, struts, braces, and other devices were used to provide the necessary structural strength. Preferred woods were relatively light and strong e. As speeds advanced, so did structural requirements, and designers analyzed individual aircraft parts for both strength and wind resistance.

Custom Aluminum Parts Machining

In , the aluminum industry continues to benefit from technical innovations made in alloy development, product-manufacturing technologies, and processing equipment over the last century. The inter-relationships among the alloy development, process innovations, and markets are highlighted. Omitted are details about patent literature or the inception of many technologies; the major criterion for placement on the list was impact on the total industry. Following is an analysis of ten innovations that influenced aluminum production methods and markets.

Specialties

Pure aluminum is soft and has limited strength. Small amounts of elements such as copper, magnesium, and zinc are often added to increase strength. Aluminum is a comparatively new industrial metal that has been produced in commercial quantities for just over years. Good mechanical properties and weldability, making it one of the most common alloys for general use. Typically used in the manufacturing of aircraft, watercraft, automotive parts, and bicycle frames.

Aluminum is one of the most widely used metals in the world.

Aluminium alloys or aluminum alloys ; see spelling differences are alloys in which aluminium Al is the predominant metal. The typical alloying elements are copper , magnesium , manganese , silicon , tin and zinc. There are two principal classifications, namely casting alloys and wrought alloys, both of which are further subdivided into the categories heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable. Cast aluminium alloys yield cost-effective products due to the low melting point, although they generally have lower tensile strengths than wrought alloys. The most important cast aluminium alloy system is Al—Si , where the high levels of silicon 4. Aluminium alloys are widely used in engineering structures and components where light weight or corrosion resistance is required. Alloys composed mostly of aluminium have been very important in aerospace manufacturing since the introduction of metal-skinned aircraft.

Types of Aluminum

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When beginning any project, material selection is one of the most fundamental choices that can dictate its success. Airplanes, computers, buildings, and other modern technologies all use specialized materials that allow them to complete amazing tasks, and one of the most important materials in this regard is the metal aluminum. Aluminum is the most abundant metal on Earth, making it an attractive, cost-effective option for builders when considering metal for their project. This alloying process has allowed many grades of aluminum alloys to be produced, and there are so many grades that the Aluminum Association has classified these types of aluminum into categories based on alloying elements and material properties. This article will give a brief introduction to the different types of aluminum, how they differ, and which alloys are best suited for certain applications. The Aluminum Association Inc. They have organized the hundreds of aluminum alloys into grades, which are given four-digit identifiers that contain information about their composition and processing. Many of these alloys have been divided into classes, which are denoted by the first digit in their names ex. The following three digits describe specific alloys, hardening processes, and other information that could be useful to manufacturers, but will not be explored in this article, as they are more pertinent to alloy makers and not buyers.

May 9, - Although aluminum is not the strongest metal, alloying it with other metals helps to Buildings made with aluminum are virtually maintenance free due to Aluminum's appearance is the reason it is used frequently in consumer goods. like audio manufacturer Bang & Olufsen also heavily favor aluminum.

Types of Aluminum

Most Common Uses of Aluminum. No other metal can compare to Aluminum when it comes to its variety of uses. Some uses of aluminum may not be immediately obvious; for example, did you know aluminum is used in the manufacturing of glass? Aluminum is used in transportation because of its unbeatable strength to weight ratio. Its lighter weight means that less force is required to move the vehicle, leading to greater fuel efficiency. Although aluminum is not the strongest metal, alloying it with other metals helps to increase its strength. Its corrosion resistance is an added bonus, eliminating the need for heavy and expensive anti-corrosion coatings. While the auto industry still relies heavily on steel, the drive to increase fuel efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions has led to a much wider use of aluminum. High-speed rail systems like the Shinkansen in Japan and the Maglev in Shanghai also use aluminum. The metal allows designers to reduce the weight of the trains, cutting down on friction resistance.

Additive Manufacturing of Metallic Materials: A Review

This book describes principles, industry practices and evolutionary methodologies for advanced safety studies, which are helpful in effectively managing volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous VUCA environments within the framework of quantitative risk assessment and management and associated with the safety and resilience of structures and infrastructures with tolerance against various types of extreme conditions and accidents such as fires, explosions, collisions and grounding. It presents advanced computational models for characterizing structural actions and their effects in extreme and accidental conditions, which are highly nonlinear and non-Gaussian in association with multiple physical processes, multiple scales, and multiple criteria. Probabilistic scenario selection practices and applications are presented. Engineering practices for structural crashworthiness analysis in extreme conditions and accidents are described. Multidisciplinary approaches involving advanced computational models and large-scale physical model testing are emphasized. The book will be useful to students at a post-graduate level as well as researchers and practicing engineers.

Materials and construction

The extrusions are cut to length, punched, drilled, shaped, welded, wired, tested and packaged to exact client specifications. Uninterrupted flow of extrusions, state-of-the-art facility, rigid quality control and a motivated workforce ensure that products are delivered on schedule and meet the highest standards of quality and performance. Orrvilon is known for excellent craftsmanship with industry leading accuracy.

Technology Innovation in Aluminum Products

NET Bolero Ozon. It will not only furnish readers with a broad overview of the latest advances, but also provide a valuable summary and reference work for researchers in this field. Manufacturing Process Technology.

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance. In this review article, the latest developments of the four most common additive manufacturing methods for metallic materials are reviewed, including powder bed fusion, direct energy deposition, binder jetting, and sheet lamination.

The metals used in the aircraft manufacturing industry include steel, aluminium and titanium with each possessing certain qualities that make them ideal for this use. Aircraft construction demands materials that are both durable and lightweight, as well as being able to withstand severe pressure at high altitudes, and exposure to the elements. An aircraft is built with a number of major components such as fuselage, wings, undercarriage etc. The Wright brothers' first aeroplane, which first took off in , had a 30 pound aluminium block in the engine.

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