Cooking oil is one of the oldest culinary ingredients. Since ancient times, people have made oil from olives, palms, and rapeseed. But many familiar oils in this country came along much more recently. While peanuts are native to the New World, it took the Old World to turn them into cooking oil after explorers brought them back to Europe. Only a trickle of peanut oil was made in America until World War I, when the military needed it to make glycerin for explosives. Corn oil is another modern invention: In , a chemist discovered a way to refine it for cooking, and Mazola corn oil was launched the next year.
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- Vegetable oil
- How to buy the best cooking oil
- Types of Cooking Oil
- Fats, Oils and Grease Disposal
- Oil Dispensers
- Qualities of Soap Making Oils
- The Best Oils for Cooking, and Which to Avoid
- Emulsions: making oil and water mix
- The Wonderful World of Vegetable Oils: Varieties, Flavor, and Uses for the Home Cook
Vegetable oilVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Stop Eating These Oils Immediately (Plus, 5 Alternatives) - Dr. Josh Axe
An emulsion is a temporarily stable mixture of immiscible fluids, such as oil and water, achieved by finely dividing one phase into very small droplets.
Familiar foods illustrate examples: milk is an oil in water emulsion; margarine is a water in oil emulsion; and ice cream is an oil and air in water emulsion with solid ice particles as well. Most emulsions require the use of functional chemicals, called emulsifiers, to stabilize the suspension of small droplets and prevent them from coalescing or coming together to grow larger droplets.
The driving force for coalescence is the reduction of interfacial area, which reduces the thermodynamic energy level of the system. Emulsifiers form physical barriers to prevent droplets from coming together.
Emulsifiers Food emulsifiers have much in common with detergents in that both classes of chemicals have water-loving and oil-loving or attracting regions on the same molecule. The water-attracting portion often is ionic and is described as hydrophilic. The oil-attracting, lipophilic end is often a long-chain hydrocarbon region such as a fatty acid.
There are both natural and synthetic emulsifiers. Lecithin is a phospholipid molecule found in soy and isolated in refining of soy oil. It is an effective and popular food emulsifier. Egg yolk contains two emulsifiers—lecithin, which promotes oil in water emulsions, and cholesterol, which promotes water in oil emulsions. Egg yolk is the traditional emulsifier for mayonnaise and other culinary sauces, but because of its dual functionality, these products can be tricky to make successfully.
Mayonnaise is normally made at room temperature because the oil phase is usually vegetable oil, but other sauces may require mild heating because the oil phase is often butter, which is solid at room temperature.
Heating risks irreversibly denaturing the egg yolk think scrambled eggs and so must be carefully controlled. Emulsifiers are characterized by their hydrophilic lipophilic balance HLB , a number from 1 to 20 that indicates which tendency is more dominant. An HLB less than 6 favors water in oil emulsions; a value greater than 8 favors oil in water emulsions.
Values of 7— 9 indicate good wetting agents. Other common emulsifiers found in foods include proteins, gums, and various esters of fatty acids and poly hydroxyl substrates, such as lactic acid, sucrose, and polysorbates. The mono- and di-glycerides are food emulsifiers made by transesterification followed by molecular distillation. They have different properties depending on which specific fatty acids are included.
The same chemicals that are good emulsifiers are often used in other ways in foods. For example, stearoyl lactylates and mono- and di-glycerides can retard staling in baked goods by interfering with starch retrogradation.
In chocolate, emulsifiers reduce viscosity, permitting a reduction in the amount of cocoa butter, which reduces both cost and calories. Emulsifiers in cake batter promote better release of cake from pans. Sucrose esters have been used as fat replacers, including in frying of snacks, to reduce calories. Some ingredients can affect viscosity; densities are usually pretty well fixed; so droplet size becomes the one processing variable that can be manipulated. Making an Emulsion Emulsification involves making small droplets and having them adequately coated with the appropriate emulsifier.
Making small droplets requires adding energy to create a large interfacial area. In the kitchen, this may entail vigorous beating or whisking by hand or by a mixer. In a food plant, the process may be batch or continuous using specialized equipment. In addition to delivering energy properly, the order of addition of ingredients is critical. The correct procedure is to prepare the continuous phase, including the emulsifier, first. Then the dispersed phase is added slowly with vigorous agitation.
Mayonnaise is a good example. It also means, since egg yolk is the traditional emulsifier, that the mixture runs a risk of inverting, under the influence of the cholesterol unless the mixing is carefully controlled. Specifically, oil must be added slowly so that the lecithin can thoroughly coat the small droplets. High or low temperatures can destabilize emulsions, so they are not normally frozen.
Low temperatures may harden the fat phase, while high temperatures can cause droplets to collide energetically enough to coalesce. Equipment for Emulsification In general, emulsification equipment delivers high shear to the dispersed phase to form small droplets.
One approach is the immersion mixer in which a rotor spins at high speed inside a relatively tight cage that has slots or other shaped holes. Fluid is pulled into the cage and expelled through the openings. Additional agitators may be used in a vessel to promote circulation of the mixture so all portions are treated.
Colloid mills are devices in which two plates form a narrow passage through which fluid passes. One or both plates may rotate, and there may be interlacing pins or other shear-inducing features. Usually the clearance can be adjusted and cooling may be applied for temperature control. Depending on the effectiveness of the machine for a given system, one pass may be sufficient, or the mixture may be recirculated for multiple passes.
A homogenizer is a high pressure pump that forces a fluid through a restrictive valve or two to induce shear. Homogenizers are common in dairy processing and often are incorporated in a pasteurization system where they may also serve as a timing pump. As previously mentioned, fluid milk is an oil in water emulsion after being homogenized. Before that, the fat phase or cream is easily separated.
A typical dairy process separates milk into skim milk and cream, then recombines these to make products of the desired fat content, including full-fat milk 3. Yogurt, cheeses, and ice creams of varying fat content are made the same way, by recombining the components. Excess cream is made into butter. There are proprietary devices from such firms as APV www. Another approach is ultrasonics, in which a metal tool vibrates at a high frequency to introduce shear to a flowing fluid.
A membrane emulsifier forces the dispersed phase through small pores into a flowing continuous phase. Meat Emulsions Finely chopped sausages such as frankfurters and some lunch meats are considered emulsions of fat in an aqueous phase of soluble protein, salts, and suspended particles or fibers.
Such emulsions are stabilized by the addition of phosphates as well as the extracted soluble proteins. Grinders and cutters are typically used to reduce the particle sizes of meat and fat and to disperse them uniformly. Phosphates promote the extraction of protein but also coat fat particles and prevent them from coalescing.
Most such meat emulsions are cooked, sometimes with smoke, to make them safe and ready to eat. Some sausages are fermented with lactic acid—producing bacteria before cooking and drying to make distinctive products such as pepperoni and Italian salami. The bacteria produce lactic acid, lowering pH to a safe level and out competing potential pathogens by consuming nutrients faster than the pathogens while also contributing typical flavors.
Subsequent cooking and drying further develop flavor and texture while also contributing to shelf life by reducing water activity. Thus these products in their wide variety are illustrations of the hurdle concept for food preservation: combining several inhibition steps, none of which alone is sufficient to preserve a food, in such a way that the food is safe and palatable. In the case of meat emulsions made into sausages, salt, nitrites, low pH, mild heat treatment, and reduced water activity are all involved.
Food emulsions are complex chemical and physical systems that make some of our most popular and important foods possible. On a small scale, in the kitchen, anyone can observe and experience the marvel of a successful emulsion by making their own mayonnaise or classic culinary sauce using egg yolk, olive oil, lemon juice, or vinegar and a little dry mustard. The mustard is another emulsifier, by the way, and the acid in the aqueous phase is a partial preservative.
Ideally, one should use pasteurized egg yolks, which are available commercially. Peter Clark, Ph. Peter Clark. Article Food Technology Magazine Sunflower seed hemp butter; Probiotic gut shots; Meal starter simplifies home cooking January 1, January 8, Article Daily News Renmatix, Cargill to develop functional ingredients from plants December 16,
We use cooking oils for frying, baking, stir-fries, salads and marinades, but choosing the right one can be confusing. We're bombarded with all different types of oils — not to mention all the different descriptors such as "extra light" and "cold-pressed". And then of course there are health concerns, particularly around levels of saturated fat. Cooking oils are a combination of all the different types of fats. When it comes to cooking, we use oils in a wide variety of ways.
How to buy the best cooking oil
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Types of Cooking Oil
Find out more about trans fat and how to avoid it. Trans fat is considered by many doctors to be the worst type of fat you can eat. Unlike other dietary fats, trans fat — also called trans-fatty acids — both raises your LDL "bad" cholesterol and lowers your HDL "good" cholesterol. A diet laden with trans fat increases your risk of heart disease, the leading killer of men and women.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Garlic Spaghetti - Spaghetti Aglio e Olio Recipe - Pasta with Garlic and Olive Oil
Like choosing the ingredients in any recipe, choosing the oils in your soap recipes is a very important step in your soap making. Each oil imparts different qualities to the final soap - creating your soap recipe is the art of balancing them to create the perfect bar of soap. Here is a list of the most common soap-making oils and the qualities they will give to your soap recipes. Apricot kernel oil is a light oil that is similar to almond oil in its fatty acid makeup. It's good in soap, massage and bath oils , massage bars and bath bombs. A lovely moisturizing oil that is very light and absorbs well. It's really nice in lotions, massage bars, bath bombs, bath oils, and especially in salt and sugar scrubs. Avocado oil is a heavy, green, rich, moisturizing oil that has a high percentage of unsaponifiables the portions of the oil that don't react with the lye to form soap, so it's a good oil to superfat with. It's often used in soap recipes for people with sensitive skin.
Fats, Oils and Grease Disposal
These examples represent emulsions, which are stable mixtures of tiny droplets of one immiscible fluid within another, made possible by chemicals called emulsifiers. In both cases, emulsifiers are needed to prevent the suspended droplets from coalescing and breaking the emulsion. Anybody who has made a simple oil-and-vinegar salad dressing knows that, with enough shaking or whisking, one can make a temporary emulsion. However, in the absence of emulsifiers, this unstable emulsion breaks down within minutes, and the oil forms a layer on top of the vinegar.
Following harvest, oilseed grains rapeseed, sunflower are collected from farmers and stored under conditions to preserve their quality and enable their processing to be staggered throughout the year. Assured by cooperatives and trading firms in France, Avril is partly responsible for this collection in Romania through Expur. Avril subsidiaries involved in this activity: Expur. Once collected, the rapeseed and sunflower grains are crushed in order to obtain vegetable oil on the one hand and oilseed meals on the other. Rich in vegetable proteins, these meals are used for livestock feeds. Raw or refined, the vegetable oils are exploited for use in human foods or for renewable chemistry. They can also be transformed into biodiesel — a renewable energy — and vegetable glycerin. Avril subsidiaries involved in this activity: Saipol, Expur , Kerfoot. Avril is the leader in the production of table oils in France, Morocco and Romania. It is also a major player in the sector of mayonnaises, sauces and condiments. European leader in the production of biodiesel from oilseeds, the Group is a pioneer in renewable energies.
Fat is one of the most misunderstood foods out there, and vegetable oils specifically top the list. In fact, vegetable oils may actually be one of the most damaging and dangerous foods in our diets, so here is a complete overview on why you need to ditch vegetable oils immediately. The term vegetable oil is used for oils that have been extracted from seeds including canola oil, corn oil, soy oil, rapeseed oil and safflower oil. Vegetable oils were essentially non-existent until the early s when new industrial processes allowed them to be extracted. Consider this; have you ever seen an oily vegetable?
Qualities of Soap Making Oils
Cooking oils are a basic staple in our kitchens. We use them for searing, roasting, marinating , baking, deep frying , and seasoning, as well as making sauces , dips and dressings. Along with a high level of unsaturated fats, they contain additional substances that are important for our health. This useful liquid can only be gained from specific plants that allow the extraction of fat. These may be referred to as oil plants. They can be divided into two main groups of plants that supply the fat via their fruits, or their seeds:.
The Best Oils for Cooking, and Which to Avoid
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Emulsions: making oil and water mix
When it comes to the performance and flavor, not all cooking oils are created equal. Some are super flavorful, but turn rancid when heated. How to differentiate between them all? And how to store them?
The Wonderful World of Vegetable Oils: Varieties, Flavor, and Uses for the Home Cook
Palm oil is grown on vast plantations in Malaysia, Indonesia, and many other South Asian and African countries. Due to the ever increasing demand for Palm Oil in both the food industry and booming biofuel production , more land is needed every year for more oil palm trees. Some unscrupulous plantations clear surrounding rainforest and peat for this land illegally, which has led to the destruction of orangutan habitat and local land conflicts in some areas.
Chapter 6 : Selected uses of fats and oils in food. Contents - Previous - Next. Fats are the primary constituents of margarines, butterfat, shortenings, and oils for salad and cooking.