Michael Brian Schiffer. This manual pulls together—and illustrates with interesting case studies—the variety of specialized and generalized archaeological research strategies that yield new insights into science. Throughout the book there are templates, consisting of questions, to help readers visualize and design their own projects. The manual seeks to be as general as possible, applicable to any society, and so science is defined as the creation of useful knowledge—the kinds of knowledge that enable people to make predictions. The chapters in Part I discuss the scope of the archaeology of science and furnish a conceptual foundation for the remainder of the book. Next, Part II presents several specialized, but widely practiced, research strategies that contribute to the archaeology of science.
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A kitchen knife is any knife that is intended to be used in food preparation. While much of this work can be accomplished with a few general-purpose knives — notably a large chef's knife , a tough cleaver , and a small paring knife — there are also many specialized knives that are designed for specific tasks.
Kitchen knives can be made from several different materials. The edge of the knife can be sharpened to a cutting surface in a number of different ways. There are three main features:. Kitchen knives generally either feature a curve near the tip, as in a chef's knife, or are straight for their entire length. The edge itself may be generally smooth a "straight" or "clean" edge , or may be serrated or scalloped have "teeth" in some way.
Lastly, the point may differ in shape: most common is a sharp, triangular point as in photo , as in a chef's knife or paring knife, though the French point also called "Sheep's foot" is common in santokus, and a round point is sometimes found on long slicing knives. Some companies have names for their own serration patterns and apply them to an entire line of knives. Away from the edge, a knife most simply has either a rectangular or wedge-shaped cross-section saber grind vs.
This is widely found in Japanese knives, and in the West is particularly found in meat carving knives, though also in knives for soft cheese, and some use for vegetables.
The edge of a knife gradually loses its sharpness, which can be restored by sharpening. For many types of knives e. Knives with smooth edges can be sharpened by the user; knives with any form of serrated edge should ideally be sharpened with specialist equipment, although the useful life of a serrated knife can be extended by simple sharpeners, even if they damage the edge.
The handles of kitchen knives can be made from a number of different materials, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. Also known as a cook's knife or French knife , the chef's knife is an all-purpose knife that is curved to allow the cook to rock the knife on the cutting board for a more precise cut. The broad and heavy blade also serves for chopping bone instead of the cleaver, making this knife the all purpose heavy knife for food preparation.
An alternative way to peel vegetables and fruit is to use a peeler. The knife was a large piece of steel, very thin at the cutting edge, with a wooden handle. The utility knife has declined in popularity, and is at times derided as filler for knife sets. Outside of the kitchen, the term "utility knife" refers to a cutting tool with a short blade which can be replaced, or with a strip of blades which can be snapped off when worn.
Serrated knives are able to cut soft bread without crushing it; one was exhibited at the World's Columbian Exposition in in Chicago by the Friedrich Dick company Esslingen, Germany. Burns of Syracuse, New York. There were also sections of grooves with the opposite direction of inclination, separated by a section of smooth blade, and the knife thus cut cleanly in both directions in both hard and soft bread.
An offset bread knife 'doglegs' the handle above but parallel to the blade rather than inline with it, although some are angled , providing clearance for the user's knuckles. This design makes it easier for the user to cut fully through the loaf without using an awkward grip, angling and 'see-sawing' the blade, or needing to position the knife handle over the edge of the counter or cutting board.
An alternative seen mostly in Europe is a baguette "chopper" or "guillotine" - not properly a knife, and prone to produce more of a "crushing" cut depending on the bread - but serving the same function. Butter knives have a dull cutting edge and are generally used for spreading. A modern variant that is intended for food prep is the 'sandwich spreader' - a broad, flexible, almost spatula-like tool, with a rounded end and often with one serrated edge, similar to that used by pastry chefs to ice cakes.
A carving knife is much thinner than a chef's knife particularly at the spine , enabling it to carve thinner, more precise slices. A slicing knife serves a similar function to a carving knife, although it is generally longer and narrower. Slicers may have plain or serrated edges. Slicers are designed to precisely cut smaller and thinner slices of meat, and are normally more flexible to accomplish this task.
As such, many cooks find them better suited to slicing ham, roasts, fish, or barbecued beef and pork and venison. A ham slicer is a special type of slicer, with a long blade and rounded tip, that is offered by some manufacturers. The average size of the knife is between 9 and 15 inches. They are specially tailored to cutting ham , as they are generally thinner and more flexible. Another use can be for bigger fruit , like watermelon or cantaloupe.
A meat cleaver is a large, most often rectangular knife that is used for splitting or "cleaving" meat and bone. A cleaver may be distinguished from a kitchen knife of similar shape by the fact that it has a heavy blade that is thick from the spine to quite near the edge.
The edge is sharply beveled and the bevel is typically convex. The knife is designed to cut with a swift stroke without cracking, splintering or bending the blade. Many cleavers have a hole in the end to allow them to be easily hung on a rack.
Cleavers are an essential tool for any restaurant that prepares its own meat. Heavy cleavers with much thicker blades are often found in the trade. A "lobster splitter" is a light-duty cleaver used mainly for shellfish and fowl which has the profile of a chef's knife. The Chinese chef's knife is sometimes called a "Chinese cleaver", due to the rectangular blade, but it is unsuitable for cleaving, its thin blade instead designed for slicing; actual Chinese cleavers are heavier and similar to Western cleavers.
A cleaver is most popularly known as butcher knife which is the commonly used by chefs for cutting big slices of meat and poultry. A boning knife is used to remove bones from cuts of meat. A stiff boning knife is good for beef and pork, and a flexible one is preferred for poultry and fish. Fillet knives are like very flexible boning knives that are used to fillet and prepare fish.
Cheese is varied and often challenging to cut. Accordingly, various styles of cheese knives and cheese cutting utensils have been developed. A wire, rather than a knife, is often used to cut cheese. Soft cheese knives are specially designed for slicing soft cheese. They generally have holes in the blade to prevent the cheese from sticking. Wire cheese cutters are also used. Hard cheese knives are specially designed for slicing hard cheese. They are sharp, so they can cut exact slices, and often have a forked tip, allowing them to be used as a serving utensil as well.
Cheese slicers are also used. Parmesan cheese knives are specially designed for portioning very hard cheeses. They have very short, thick blades that are forced into the cheese and then used as a lever to break off smaller portions.
Slicing hard cheese is considered improper by connoisseurs, [ citation needed ] since the cheese - when broken apart - has more surface area, and thus more air contact, which strengthens the apparent scent and taste of the cheese. The Santoku has a straighter edge than a chef's knife, with a blunted sheepsfoot-tip blade and a thinner spine, particularly near the point. This construction allows the knife to more easily slice thin-boned and boneless meats, fish, and vegetables.
Many subsequent Western and Asian copies of the Japanese Santoku do not always incorporate these features, resulting in reduced cutting ability.
A standard in Asian especially Japanese kitchens, the santoku and its Western copies have become very popular in recent years with chefs in Europe and the United States. Similar to the nakiri bocho , the style differs slightly between Tokyo and Osaka. In Osaka, the yanagi ba has a pointed end, whereas in Tokyo the tako hiki has a rectangular end.
The tako hiki is usually used to prepare octopus. A fugu hiki is similar to the yanagi ba , except that the blade is thinner. As the name indicates, the fugu hiki is traditionally used to slice very thin fugu sashimi.
The length of the knife is suitable to fillet medium-sized fish. For very large fish such as tuna , longer specialized knives exist, for example the almost two-meter long oroshi hocho , or the slightly shorter hancho hocho. Nakiri bocho and usuba bocho are Japanese-style vegetable knives. They differ from the deba bocho in their shape, as they have a straight blade edge suitable for cutting all the way to the cutting board without the need for a horizontal pull or push.
These knives are also much thinner. While the deba bocho is a heavy blade for easy cutting through thin bones, the blade is not suitable for chopping vegetables, as the thicker blade can break the vegetable slice. The nakiri bocho and the usuba bocho have much thinner blades, and are used for cutting vegetables.
Nakiri bocho are knives for home use, and usually have a black blade. The shape of the nakiri bocho differs according to the region of origin, with knives in the Tokyo area being rectangular in shape, whereas the knives in the Osaka area have a rounded corner on the far blunt side. The cutting edge is angled from both sides, called ryoba in Japanese.
This makes it easier to cut straight slices. Usuba bocho are vegetable knives used by professionals. They differ from the Nakiri bocho in the shape of the cutting edge.
While the nakiri bocho is sharpened from both sides, the usuba bocho is sharpened only from one side, a style known as kataba in Japanese. The highest quality kataba blades even have a slight depression on the flat side. This kataba style edge gives better cuts and allows for the cutting of thinner slices than the ryoba used for nakiri bocho , but requires more skill to use.
The sharpened side is usually the right side for a right hand use of the knife, but knives sharpened on the left side are also available for left hand use. The usuba bocho is also slightly heavier than a nakiri bocho , although still much lighter than a deba bocho.
Usuba knives are Japanese knives used primarily for chopping vegetables. Both the spine and edge are straight, making them resemble cleavers, though they are much lighter. Deba knives are Japanese knives used primarily for cutting fish. A Chinese chef's knife — sometimes referred to as a Caidao, which literally mean "vegetable knife", "Chinese cleaver" or "chopper"— is the rectangular-bladed, all-purpose knife traditionally used in China, Vietnam, Cambodia, and many other Asian countries to prepare a variety of meats, fish, and vegetables.
The popularity of this style of knife has spread with the associated cuisines. They resemble Western cleavers in appearance, but most Chinese chef's knives are relatively thin-bladed and designed for slicing, chopping, and mincing vegetables, fish, and boneless meats. Heavier Gudao or bone knives are produced and are used much like Western-type meat cleavers to prepare large sides of beef, pork, and other boned meats.
However, Chinese-style knives of this weight are not common in the West. Caidao or so-called 'Chinese cleaver' is not a cleaver, and most manufacturers warn that it should not be used as a cleaver.
A blade is the portion of a tool , weapon , or machine with an edge that is designed to puncture , chop , slice or scrape surfaces or materials. Blades are typically made from materials that are harder than those they are to be used on. Historically, humans have made blades from flaking stones such as flint or obsidian , and from various metal such as copper , bronze and iron. Modern blades are often made of steel or ceramic.
A kitchen knife is any knife that is intended to be used in food preparation. While much of this work can be accomplished with a few general-purpose knives — notably a large chef's knife , a tough cleaver , and a small paring knife — there are also many specialized knives that are designed for specific tasks. Kitchen knives can be made from several different materials. The edge of the knife can be sharpened to a cutting surface in a number of different ways. There are three main features:.
ASL offers a full sharpening service of blades used for all industrial and domestic applications. Running an ongoing maintenance programme for our customers; literally monitoring blades on a daily basis across a wide range of industries. Maintenance and performance monitoring of blades is an important aspect of any companies production. We run a nationwide industrial blade pickup and delivery service.
Еды у вас хватит на четыре дня, а воды в цистерне достаточно, чтобы поддержать жизнь и после. Не знаю, Патрик, но полагаю, что вам придется оставаться здесь по крайней мере два-три дня. Ну а потом принимайте решение самостоятельно. Но, если представится возможность, хотя бы один из нас вернется. Бенджи следил за разговором с неослабным вниманием. Очевидно, он в какой-то степени понимал, что происходит, поскольку по его липу потекли слезы.
Николь подошла, чтобы утешить сына.
Но уже за следующим поворотом оставшийся в одиночестве Макс не обнаружил своих пометок. Озадаченный, он попытался припомнить: быть может, пропустил этот поворот или же ни разу не был. Глубоко задумавшись, он ощутил на своем плече ладонь и едва ли не выскочил из кожи.
А ты не хочешь пить. - спросила Наи Патрика.
Наши рюкзаки. они нам нужны. - Их вернут, - нетерпеливо ответил мужчина, - как только проверят содержимое. - А когда мы увидим Накамуру. - спросил Ричард. Человек пожал плечами - лицо его ничего не выражало - и заторопился по лестнице вверх. Дни тянулись неторопливо. Поначалу Ричард, Элли и Никки потеряли представление о времени, но скоро выяснилось, что октопауки обладают удивительно точными внутренними часами, калиброванными и усовершенствованными еще в детстве.
Значит, где-нибудь в ближайших районах Галактики обитают космопроходцы, которые чувствуют себя уютно в подобных условиях. А какими были эти существа, какими стали сейчас и зачем им нужны подобные немыслимые небоскребы - это загадка, на которую мы наверняка никогда не получим ответа. - А как насчет птиц и октопауков, дядя Ричард. - спросил Патрик. - Они по-прежнему обитают в Нью-Йорке. - После своего появления здесь я не видел никаких птиц, кроме птенцов, которых мы воспитываем.
Но октопауки попадаются. Мы с твоей матерью встретили целую дюжину этих созданий, когда отправились исследовать ход за черным экраном. В этот миг из бокового переулка вынырнул биот-многоножка, направившийся к процессии.
Вчера Совет проголосовал за продление бойкота еще на три дня. Хотя Большой Блок учел перечень всех жалоб и даже уговорил октопауков, которых в восемь раз больше, чем людей, выделить землянам достаточно времени для исключительного пользования общественными помещениями, Совет все же решил, что не добился адекватной реакции.
На заседании Совета обсуждали меры по ужесточению бойкота. Некоторые из наиболее красноречивых ораторов потребовали установить наказание для игнорирующих резолюцию о бойкоте. В конце концов собрание постановило, что порученцам Совета следует активно заняться теми людьми, которые пренебрегают рекомендациями и продолжают встречаться с другими видами разумных существ.
Поезд в главном коридоре оказался почти пуст. Полдюжины октопауков занимали первый вагон, во втором располагались три или четыре октопаука и парочка игуан. Кроме Николь и ее друзей, других землян в трамвае не. - Три недели назад до последнего обострения напряженности, - проговорила Элли, - еженедельный турнир по бриджу мы проводили на двадцати трех столах.
Синий Доктор и его коллеги-медики не теряли времени даром, и октопауки немедленно приступили к обсуждению результатов обследования Бенджи. Медицинский жаргон сложно понять даже в своем родном языке. временами я едва разбирала их цветовые фразы. Мне частенько приходилось просить повторения.
Небольшой вагончик ожидая. Она побрела к нему, волоча ноги по полу, и махала Синему Доктору.
А Орел не хотел или не мог ответить на мои вопросы. Но какому ребенку лучше: тому, чей наставник все знает и умеет обо всем рассказать, или тому, который находит ответы самостоятельно, руководствуясь намеком учителя?.
Возникли даже сомнения в психической устойчивости Роберта. Все согласились, что после бегства из Нового Эдема он чувствовал себя "не на месте", а после похищения Элли его поведение и вовсе стало хаотичным и непредсказуемым.